Malaria, including Plasmodium falciparum infection was distributed far to the North of European and Asian parts of Russia. The extreme northern boundary of malaria reached 64°N (Sergiev et al. 1968). The incidence rate for malaria, predominantly P. vivax in the early 1920s fluctuated in Arkhangelsk region from 176 to 409 per 10000 inhabitants. Local transmission was intensified by extremely hot summers in the early 1920s (Dobreitser 1924). Hundreds of P. vivax malaria cases with long incubation periods were registered in Yakutia even in the 1950s (Dukhanina 1962). Anti-malarial stations had been built in the country from the 1930s. The problem of malaria eradication was addressed by Martsinovsky and Sergiev at this time. The task of malaria liquidation as a mass infection (morbidity rate under 10 for 100000 of the population) was established in 1949. The tempo of a decline of the infection prevalence was very high in 1934-1963. Contact insecticides as well as the system of mass chemo-prophilaxis of the population helped to achieve the eradication of malaria in the USSR in the 1960s (Sergiev et al. 1968). Nowadays, only sporadic imported cases of the disease are registered in the northern territories of Russia, but introduced cases are registered in the south of the country. Local transmission in the North has been absent for decades despite the presence of the vector.

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