As already mentioned it is expected that the Icelandic human parasite fauna, which probably remained stable until the twentieth century, has, through the centuries, resembled the endemic fauna of Scandinavia and the British Isles. The absence of certain species might be a result of the isolation of the country or due to the lack of necessary intermediate hosts. During the twentieth century, however, the metazoan parasite fauna in Iceland has markedly changed. Once very common parasites like, for example, E. granulosus and P. irritans have been eradicated, most other species occur so rarely that they are generally not regarded as a problem anymore. As regards the protozoan parasites, no information is available on their presence in Iceland until recent decades. However, most of the protozoans may have been endemic in Iceland for a long time.
High standard of hygiene and medical services, use of effective drugs and insecticides, good general education, and construction of modern houses with closed effluent system are among the factors that have made it difficult for most human parasites to establish themselves or sustain in Iceland.
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