Contents

List of contributors ix

Preface xiii

PART 1

Introduction 1

1 Parasites indigenous to the North (tables)

CECILIA THORS, INGER LJUNGSTROM, AND THOMAS JAENSON 3

2 Parasites and parasitism

MATS WAHLGREN AND HANNAH AKUFFO 13

PART 2

General epidemiology in countries in the North: past and present 19

3 Prevalence of human parasites and parasitic infections in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden

STAFFAN SVARD, INGER LJUNGSTROM, AND MATS WAHLGREN 21

4 Prevalence of human parasites in Iceland: past and present status

KARL SKlRNISSON, SIGUR^DUR H. RICHTER, AND MATTHIAS EYDAL 34

5 Prevalence of parasites in the Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania): epidemiology past and present

ATS METSIS, ANTS JOGISTE, REGINA VIRBALIENE, AND LUDMILA JUREVICA 45

6 Prevalence of human parasitic infections in Russia: epidemiology past and present

V. P. SERGIEV AND N. N. OZERETSKOVSKAYA 58

7 Prevalence of parasites in Canada and Alaska: epidemiology past and present

THERESA W. GYORKOS, J. DICK MACLEAN, BOUCHRA SERHIR, AND BRIAN WARD 77

PART 3

Important parasites in the North: biology, pathogenesis and epidemiology 89

8 Acanthamoeba spp.

JADWIGA WINIECKA-KRUSNELL 91

9 Entamoeba histolytica/dispar

EWERT LINDER 95

10 Giardia intestinalis

JADWIGA WINIECKA-KRUSNELL AND AGNETA AUST KETTIS 102

11 Microsporidia spp.

J. I. RONNY LARSSON AND MARIANNE LEBBAD 108

12 Pneumocystis carinii

EWERT LINDER, KERSTIN ELVIN, AND MATS OLSSON 118

13 Toxoplasma gondii - biology and pathogenesis

ESKILD PETERSEN 132

14 Toxoplasma gondii - epidemiology

BABILL STRAY-PEDERSEN 149

15 Trichomonas vaginalis

PÂL WÖLNER-HANSSEN 156

16 Anisakis spp.

BJ0RN BERLAND 161

17 Diphyllobothrium latum

B. GÖRAN BYLUND 169

18 Echinococcus spp.

INGA-LILL GUSTAVSSON MORINGLANE 177

19 Enterobius vermicularis

KJELL ALESTIG AND JOHAN CARLSON 184

20 Toxocara canis

INGER LJUNGSTRÖM 187

21 Trichinella spp.

JOHAN LINDH AND INGER LJUNGSTRÖM 195

22 Swimmers' itch

CECILIA THORS, EWERT LINDER, AND GÖRAN BYLUND 205

23 Medically important parasitic arthropods (insects, ticks, and mites) of the northern Holarctic region

THOMAS G. T. JAENSON 215

Page vii

24 Dermatological manifestations of parasitic arthropods

JOHAN LANDEGREN 245

PART 4

Clinical presentation and laboratory investigations 255

25 Clinical symptoms of toxoplasmosis - an overview

BIRGITTA EVENGÄRD 257

26 Treatment of toxoplasmosis

BABILL STRAY-PEDERSEN 263

27 Clinical presentation and laboratory investigations of other parasites in HIV-infected individuals

IB C. BYGBJERG 272

28 Parasite infections in transplant patients

JAN ANDERSSON AND ELDA SPARRELID 284

PART 5

Laboratory diagnostics methods 287

29 PCR-based diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii infections: experience from a low-prevalence area

NANCY P. NENONEN, TOMAS BERGSTRÖM, AND SIGVARD OLOFSSON 289

30 Isolation of Toxoplasma gondii

MAIJA LAPPALAINEN 301

31 Serology - Toxoplasma gondii

INGER LJUNGSTRÖM 303

32 Serology - other parasites

INGER LJUNGSTRÖM 306

33 Parasite detection

MICHAEL WILLCOX, MARIANNE LEBBAD, AND JADWIGA WINIECKA-KRUSNELL 313

34 DNA detection

BETTINA LUNDGREN AND MATS OLSSON 333

PART 6

Historical review 345

35 Linnaeus, Armauer Hansen, and Nordic research on some neglected diseases

SVEN F. F. BRITTON 347

Index 355

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