Approximately 20 different proteins have been identified as antigenic in the T. spiralis L1 infective stage, ranging in size from 11 to 105 kDa (Despommier and Lacetti 1981). Together, the major immunodominant epitopes are found to be glycoproteins in the range of 40-50kDa, and are collectively known as TSL-1 (Appleton et al. 1991; Ortega-Pierres et al. 1996). These antigens all share the same immunodominant carbohydrate epitope, tyvelose, which is unique for Trichinella (Ellis et al. 1994). Antibodies raised towards TSL-1 recognize one major 43-kDa protein (Gp45) which is stage specific and localizes to the stichosome and cuticle of the mature larvae (Despommier et al. 1990; Vassilatis et al. 1992; Jasmer et al. 1994). However, the function of TSL-1 is not fully understood yet.

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