Viiiwhy NfjB Is Important For Cancer

The NF-kB has been shown to regulate the expression of a number ofgenes whose products are involved in tumorigenesis (20,21). These include antiapoptosis genes [e.g., clAP, suvivin, TRAF, bcl-2, and bcl-xl) COX2; MMP-9; genes encoding adhesion molecules, chemokines, inflammatory cytokines and iNOS; and cell cycle regulatory genes (e.g., cyclin Dl) (22).] Thus, agents that can suppress NF-kB activation have the potential to suppress carcinogenesis and have therapeutic potential (21,23). The therapeutic role of phytochemicals in prevention and treatment of cancer has been indicated (24-26). Thus, plant-derived phytochemicals that could suppress NF-kB activation by various carcinogens have been shown (Table 1).

Chemopreventive agent

Source

Chemical name

Curcumin

Curcuma longa

(E,E)-l,7-Bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenyl)-

l,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione;

Diferuloylmethane

Retinoids

Vitamin A

N-(4-hydroxyphenyl) retinamide; All-trans

retinoc acid

Capsaicin

Capsicum sp.

N-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl)-8-methylnon-

trans-6-enamide

Vitamin E

Plants

a-tocopherol, ; 5,7,8-trimethyltocol

Quercetin

Rhododendron cinnabarinum

3,3',4',5,7-pentahydroxyflavone

Dihydroxy vitamin D3

Fish liver oils

la,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol

Resveratrol

Polygonum cuspidatum

Trans-3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene

Silymarin

Silybum marianum.

Silybin

Lapachone

Bignoniaceous plants e.g.

/¡-Lapachone

Lapacha tree

Sulindac

Synthetic

(Z)—Fluoro-2-methyl-l-[[4-(methyl-sulfinyl)

phenyl]methylene]-lH-indene-3-acetic acid

Celecoxib

Synthetic

1,2-diarylpyrrole

Tea polyphenols

Green or Black Tea

(—) Epigallocatechin 3-gallate; Theaflavin

Sulforaphane

Cruciferous vegitables eg. Broccoli

l-isothiocyanato-(4R)-(methylsulfinyl)

butane

Asprin

Synthetic

2-(Acetyloxy)benzoic acid

Caffeic acid phenethyl

Honeybee hives

3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid phenethyl ester

ester (CAPE)

ester (CAPE)

(Continued)

Table 1 Chemopreventive Agents That Block NF-kB (Continued )

Chemopreventive agent

Source

Chemical name

S,S'-l,4-Phenylene-bis Synthetic

(1,2-ethanediyl) bis-isothiourea (PBIT) Pyrrolidine dithocarbamate (PDTC) Synthetic

Anethole Oleandrin

Wortmannin

Emodin Ursolic acid

Betulinic acid

Pimpinella anisum Nerium oleander

Pénicillium wormanni

Aloe barbandensis, polygonum cuspidatum Rosemarinus officinalis, Eriobotrya japónica, Calluna vulgaris, Ocimum sanctum, and Eugenia jumbolana Tryphyllum peltaum, Ancistrocladus heyneaus, Zizyphus joazeiro, Diospyoros leucomelas, Tetracera boliviana, and Syzygium formosanum)

S,S'-l,4-phenylene-bis(l,2-ethanediyl) bis-isothiourea (PBIT)

Pyrrolidine dithocarbamate p-propenylanisole

(3ß,5ß,16ß)-16-(Acetyloxy)-3-[(2,6-di-deoxy-3-Omethyl-aarabino-hexopyranosyl)oxy]-14-hydroxycard-20(22)-enolide [lS-(la,6ba, 9aß, IIa, llbß)]-ll-(Acety-loxy)-l,6b,7,8,9a,10,ll,llb-octahydro-l-(methoxymethyl)-9a, 1 lb-dimethyl-3H-furo[4,3,2-de]indeno[4,5-h]-2-benzopyran-3,6,9-trione l,3,8-Trihydroxy-6-methyl-9,10-anthr-

acenedione (3ß-hydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid)

3/i-Hydroxy-20(29)-lupaene-28-oic acid

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