Transcriptional Regulation Of Cellular Antioxidant And Detoxifying Enzymes

Oxidative stress provokes cellular responses which principally involve transcriptional activation of genes encoding proteins participating in the antioxidant defense. The eukaryotic cell contains a multitude of signal transduction pathways coupling pro-oxidative stimuli to the specific regulation of gene expression for adaptive responses. The signal transduction pathways that lead to the oxidative stress response are much less understood. In recent years, several components of the signal transduction cascades that sense oxidative injury have been identified in higher eukaryotes. These include the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases and transcription factors that are subject to redox regulation. ROS can function as physiological mediators of transcrip-tional control of downstream genes encoding antioxidant enzymes and cytoprotective or stress-responsive proteins, which may lead to the adaptive responses to oxidative stress. Among the transcription factors involved in cellular defense/adaptation to oxidative stress response, two early response transcriptional complexes NF-kB and AP-1 have been considered to be most important because they can be redox regulated (15,16). The activation of NF-kB and AP-1 is influenced following exposure to chemical, physical and biological agents that can alter the cellular redox status.

Recent studies have identified other transcription factors distinct from NF-kB and AP-1. Of particular interest is Nrf2, a member of the "cap 'n' collar'' (CNC) family of basic region/leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors, highly homologous to the NF-E2 transcription factors (17).

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Body Detox Made Easy

Body Detox Made Easy

What exactly is a detox routine? Basically a detox routine is an all-natural method of cleansing yourbr body by giving it the time and conditions it needs to rebuild and heal from the damages of daily life and the foods you eat and other substances you intake. There are many different types of known detox routines.

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