Treatment with levodopa 238

Motor complications 239

Levodopa-induced elevation of homocysteine 240

Therapy of increased homocysteine levels in PD patients 241

Is levodopa administration toxic in clinical practice? 242

Conclusion 242

References 243

Chapter 11 Reactive Oxygen Metabolites (ROMs) as an Index of

Oxidative Stress in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Patients 247

K. Christou and K.I. Gourgoulianis

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome 247

Oxidation and reduction - pro-oxidants and antioxidants 251

Hypoxia/reoxygenation injury (H/R) 255

D-ROM test 257

Conclusion 258

References 259

Chapter 12 The Key Role of Oxidative Stress in Alzheimer's Disease 267

Paula I. Moreira, Akihiko Nunomura, Kazuhiro Honda, Gjumrakch Aliev, Gemma Casadesus, Xiongwei Zhu, Mark A. Smith, and George Perry

Introduction 267

Energetic metabolism deficiency in Alzheimer's disease 268

Oxidative stress in Alzheimer's disease 269

Sources of oxidative stress in Alzheimer's disease 271

Alzheimer's disease lesions: cause or consequence of oxidative stress? 273

Conclusions 276

References 276

Chapter 13 The Role of Oxidative Stress in the Pathogenesis of

Multiple Sclerosis: Current State 283

Nirit Lev, Yossi Gilgun-Sherki, Daniel Offen, and Eldad Melamed

Introduction 283

Oxidative stress in the CNS 284

Oxidative stress and inflammation 284

Oxidative stress in MS 286

Antioxidants as possible treatment for MS 288

Experimental studies 289

Clinical studies 290

Concluding remarks and future strategies 291

References 291

Chapter 14 Oxidative Stress and Neuroinflammation in Alzheimer's Disease and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: From Biology to

Therapeutic Strategies 297

Molina Mhatre and Kenneth Hensley

Neuroinflammation - a common feature of most age-related neurodegenerative diseases 297

Neuroinflammation and Alzheimer's disease 297

Anti-amyloidogenic properties of NSAIDs - a novel mechanism of action 298

Mechanism underlying the reduction in A^ generation by NSAIDs 299

NSAIDs and clinical trials 299

Antioxidant treatment and Alzheimer's disease 304

Antioxidant clinical trials using Alzheimer's disease patients 304

Neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and ALS 305

Concluding remarks 305

Acknowledgments 306

References 306

Chapter 15 Oxidative Stress in Stroke 313

Margarita L. Alexandrova and Petyo G. Bochev

Introduction 313 Therapeutic strategies with antioxidants in acute and chronic phases after stroke 343

Concluding remarks 355

References 356

Chapter 16 Hyperoxidation of the Two Catecholamines, Dopamine and Adrenaline: Implications for the Etiologies and Treatment of Encephalitis Lethargica, Parkinson's Disease, Multiple Sclerosis, Amyotrophic Lateral

Sclerosis, and Schizophrenia 369

Harold D. Foster and Abram Hoffer

Dopamine and dopachrome 369

Adrenaline and adrenochrome 375

Conclusions 379

References 379

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis 383

Mauro Cozzolino and Maria Teresa Carri

Introduction 383

Oxidative stress and ALS 384

Copper homeostasis and ALS 387

Iron homeostasis and ALS 390

Copper and iron: the devil's pair? 392

Conclusions 393

References 393

Chapter 18 Neurotransmission, Oxidative Stress, and Coexistence of

Neurotransmitters in Parkinson's Disease 399

G. Ali Qureshi

Introduction 399

Material and methods 402

Conclusions 424

References 425

Chapter 19 Manganese-Induced Oxidative Stress 433

Allison W. Dobson and Michael Aschner

Introduction 433

Sources of manganese 434

Essentiality, absorption, and transport 434

Toxicity 438

Manganese-induced oxidative stress 440

References 443

Chapter 20 Prospects for Antioxidant Therapy in Mild Cognitive

Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease 451

Akihiko Nunomura, George Perry, and Mark A. Smith

Introduction 451

The early involvement of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of AD 452

Anti-oxidative strategy for AD: lessons from vitamin E studies 455

Anti-oxidative strategy for AD: targeting modifiable risk factors 458

Conclusion 460

References 460

in Patients with Neurodegenerative Disorders 467

Peter C. Waldmeier

Apoptosis and other modes of cell death 467

Evidence for a role of PCD in ND 473 Development of antiapoptotic drugs for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases (ND) 481

The first two antiapoptotic compounds failed in clinical trials 481

Conclusions 490

References 492

Chapter 22 Role of Antioxidant Activity of Estrogens in their Potent

Neuroprotection 503

Evelyn Perez, Xiaofei Wang, and James W. Simpkins

Introduction 503

Acknowledgments 513

References 513

Chapter 23 Diet, Herbs, and Nutritional Protection against Oxidative

Stress in Neurological Diseases 525

Carlos Kusano Bucalen Ferrari

Introduction 525

Conclusions 536

References 536

Chapter 24 Diabetic Neuropathy: Pathogenesis and Treatment 543

Maria Siemionow, Yalcin Kulahci, and Galip Agaoglu

Introduction 543

Treatment of diabetic neuropathy 554

Neurosensory testing in diabetic neuropathy 566

References 572

Chapter 25 Green and Black Tea in Brain Protection 581

Justyna Ostrowska, Wojciech Luczaj, Agnieszka Augustyniak, and ElZbieta Skrzydlewska

Introduction 581

References 600

Parkinson's Disease? 607

Fai Tsang and Tuck Wah Soong

Introduction 607

Concluding remarks 614

Acknowledgment 615

References 616

Chapter 27 Prevention and Therapy of Neurodegenerative Disorders:

Role of Nutritional Antioxidants 621

Vincenzo Di Matteo, Massimo Pierucci, Giuseppe Di Giovanni, and Ennio Esposito

Major neurodegenerative disorders 621

Natural dietary antioxidants 625

ROS, NF-kB, and neurodegenerative disorders 633

Alzheimer's disease, oxidative stress, NF-kB, and antioxidants 635

Parkinson's disease, oxidative stress, NF-kB, and antioxidants 638

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, oxidative stress, NF-kB, and antioxidants 642

Conclusions 644

Acknowledgments 645

References 646

Chapter 28 Genetics of Parkinson's Disease 663

Yue Huang, Piu Chan, and Glenda Halliday

Introduction 663

Causative genes for familial PD 665

Susceptibility genes for PD 675

Genetic implications for PD 687

Acknowledgment 687

References 688

Chapter 29 Biomarkers of Hypoxic Brain Injury 699

Giuseppe Buonocore, Serafina Perrone, Luisa De Marco, and Carlo Valerio Bellieni

Introduction 699

Conclusions 710

References 711

Chapter 30 Role of Selenium, Iron, Copper, and Zinc in Parkinsonism 719

G. Ali Qureshi, Shuja Ali Syed, and S.H. Parvez

Introduction 719

Patients and methods 721

Results 722

Discussion 723

References 731

Chapter 31 Oxidative Stress in Phagocytic Cells: Changes with

Age and Effect of Melatonin 737

C. Barriga, M.P. Terrón, S.H. Parvez, J. Cubero, D. Narciso, S.D. Paredes, S. Sánchez, and A.B. Rodríguez

Introduction 737

Pinealectomy, bursectomy, and the immune system 744

Conclusions: future horizon 756

References 757


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