■ Anatomically, the chief muscles that function in the sagittal plane include the rectus abdominis, transversus abdominis, erector spinae, mul-tifidus and hamstrings. The rectus abdominis and multifidus, together with tonic contraction of the transversus, can produce increases in in-tra-abdominal pressure. The gluteus maximus is important to help transfer lower extremity forces to the trunk. Chief lateral muscles of the hip and trunk that function in the frontal plane include gluteus medius, gluteus minimus and quadratus lumborum. These glutei help maintain a level pelvis in closed chain motion. Co-contraction of bilateral quadratus lumborum help stiffens the spine. Chief medial muscles acting in the frontal plane include adductor magnus, adductor longus and brevis, and pectineus. Their role in core stability is smaller than that of the aforementioned muscles. Trunk rotation is provided for by internal and external oblique muscles, the iliocostalis lumborum and the multifidus. Bilateral activation of these muscles also aids core stability by increasing intra-abdominal pressure
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