Contents

1. Introduction 460

1.1. Importance of chemical activities for life 460

1.2. Solvation vs binding 460

1.3. Solvation, solution structure, and water structure 461

1.4. Overall solvation derived from pair correlations 462

1.5. Experimental data useful for deriving thermodynamic solvation 463

1.6. Useful approximations 464

2. General Kirkwood-Buff Equations 467

2.1. Working in the molal scale 467

2.2. Elimination of parameters based on the given system 468

2.3. Working in the molar scale 468

3. Case 1: Osmolyte Solvation 470

3.1. Derivation of equations 470

3.2. Application of equations 472

4.1. Derivation of equations 474

4.2. Interpretation 476

5. Case 3: Specific Binding of an Osmolyte 479

5.1. Specific binding as a solvation phenomenon 479

5.2. Specific binding explicitly taken into account 480

6. Case 4: Specific Binding of a Dilute Ligand 482 Acknowledgments 483 References 484

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