Contents

1. Introduction 398

2. Initial Observations of Osmolyte Effects on Proteins 398

3. The Transfer-Free Energy Model 401

4. How Transfer-Free Energies Are Measured 403

5. The Issue of Activity Coefficients: Solution Nonideality at the Solubility Limit 406

6. Additive, Concentration Scale-Independent and Model Compound-Independent Transfer-Free Energies of the Peptide Backbone Unit 408

7. The Transfer-Free Energy of Amino Acid Side Chains 412

8. Solvent-Accessible Surface Areas of Native and Denatured

States: Calculating Aa.t 413

9. Putting It All Together: Predicting m Values for the Energetics of Osmolyte-Induced Protein Folding/Unfolding 414

10. Summary 415

Acknowledgments 416

References 416

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