Contents

1. Introduction 420

2. Adverse Effect of Salinity Stress 421

3. Generic Pathway for Plant Response to Stress 422

4. Ion Pumps, Calcium, and SOS Pathways in Relation to

Salinity Stress 424

5. Abscisic Acid and Transcription Factors in Salinity

Stress Tolerance 427

6. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases and Salinity Stress 430

7. Glycine Betaine and Proline in Salinity Stress 430

8. Reactive Oxygen Species in Salinity Stress 431

9. DEAD-Box Helicases in Salinity Stress Tolerance 432

10. Cross-Tolerances Between Stresses 434

11. Future Prospective 435 Acknowledgments 436 References 436

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