Contents

1. Introduction 78

1.1. Bacterial osmotolerance, halotolerance, and osmoregulation 78

1.2. Osmosensing and osmosignaling 82

2. Estimation of Key Solution Properties and of Turgor Pressure 85

2.1. Osmotic pressure, water activity, osmolality, and osmolarity 85

2.2. Ionic strength 86

2.3. Macromolecular crowding, volume exclusion, and protein hydration 87

2.4. Turgor pressure 87

3. Assessment of Osmotolerance 88

4. Identification of Osmoprotectants, Compatible Solutes, and Organic Osmolytes 89

5. Identification and Distribution of Osmosensory and Osmoregulatory Transporters 90

5.1. Transporter identification 90

5.2. Transporter gene distribution 95

6. In Vitro Systems 96

6.1. Membrane vesicle preparation 96

6.2. Proteoliposome preparation 97

6.3. Membrane composition and topology in cells, membrane vesicles, and proteoliposomes 97

7. Measurement of Osmosensory Transporter Activity 98

8. Conclusion 100 References 101

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