GeneraL Mechanisms of Mechano or Osmosensing by Membrane Proteins

Membrane transport proteins appear to sense mechanical forces and or changes in osmolarity by a number of fundamental mechanisms. These are outlined in Fig. 10.1 and discussed later, focusing on the mechanisms relevant to ion channels in general and TRP channels in particular (for reviews on general mechanisms of mechanotransduction, see Hamill and Martinac, 2001 Kung, 2005 Nicolson, 2005 Perozo, 2006). Any channel embedded in a lipid bilayer is exposed to negative and positive pressures...

Differentiation of 3T3L1 adipocytes

3T3-L1 fibroblasts are a continuous substrain of 3T3 (Swiss albino) developed through clonal isolation (CL-173, ATCC). The cells undergo a preadipose to adipose-like conversion as they progress from a rapidly dividing to a confluent and contact inhibited state. After differentiation, Glut 4 translocation and glucose uptake can be induced in response to insulin. The differentiation protocol is as follows. 3T3-L1 fibroblasts are grown in six-well plates or 100-mm dishes in Dulbecco's modified...

Gc Lague Brilliance

M., and Ward, C. W. (2004). Signalling by the type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor Interplay with the epidermal growth factor receptor. Growth Factors 22, 89-95. Albright, C. D., da Costa, K. A., Craciunescu, C. N., Klem, E., Mar, M. H., and Zeisel, S. H. (2005). Regulation of choline deficiency apoptosis by epidermal growth factor in CWSV-1 rat hepatocytes. Cell. Physiol. Biochem. 15, 59-68. Alisi, A., Demori, I., Spagnuolo, S., Pierantozzi, E., Fugassa, E., and...