Slit Lamp Examination

The anterior segment exam may show conjunctival chemosis or injection in thyroid disease or orbital inflammatory disease. Arterialization of the conjuncti-val vessels might suggest an underlying carotid cavernous fistula. Orbital AVMs may present with findings similar to cavernous sinus AVMs and may require superselective angiography for diagnosis. Anterior uveitis can be seen in patients with systemic inflammatory disorders including sarcoid.14-18

TABLE 7.1. Signs and Symptoms of Orbital Disease.

Proptosis or enophthalmos

Conjunctival chemosis

and injection

Lid findings

Lid retraction

Lid lag

Lid edema

Ptosis

Visual loss

Exposure keratopathy

Optic neuropathy

Ophthalmoplegia and diplopia

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