Orbital disease may produce retinal and retinal vas-culature changes in the fundus.4 Venous engorgement and tortuousity may be seen in carotid cavernous fistulas or less commonly in compressive orbital disorders. Secondary retinal vein occlusion with in-traretinal hemorrhages and macular edema may be seen. Choroidal folds may result from orbital lesions compressing the globe. Fluorescein angiography might demonstrate the folds more dramatically (Figure 7.4).
chapter 7: neuro-ophthalmologic evaluation of the orbit
filtrates, retinal vasculitis, optic disk edema) may occur in patients with intraorbital inflammatory (e.g., scleritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, Wegener's granulomatosis), infectious (e.g., endophthalmitis with extrascleral extension), or neoplastic (e.g., orbital lymphoma) conditions.
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