Morphologic Features

Most patients with an arteriovenous fistula do not undergo a biopsy procedure (Table 14.1). Histopatholog-ically, these malformations consist of abnormally formed arteries and veins with an irregular elastic and muscular layer and secondary endothelial cell proliferation that simulate the appearance of a capillary hemangioma.96

FIGURE 14.16. (A,B) Longstanding vascular malformation of the upper eyelid and the anterior orbit forming a mass lesion without any arterial or venous connections. (C) Another arteriovenous malformation of the upper eyelid that presented as a pulsating mass. (D) The histopathology of the same lesion shows abnormal arterial and venous blood vessels intertwined within a vascular hamartomatous mass. (E,F) The ultrasonographic examination of the lesion reveals multiple cystic spaces with B-mode scan and a marked variation of internal reflectivity with A-mode scan.

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