The incidence of disease processes of the orbit and ocular adnexa, both infective and neoplastic, has changed over time and varies enormously in geographic distribution. These trends have been largely due to changes in the incidence of infections with some bacteria and viruses. In addition, our understanding of the role of infectious agents in the development of neoplasms has increased, and it is likely that their role is greater than had been recognized in a large number of orbital and ocular adnexal neoplasms.


1. Duke-Elder S. Inflammations of the orbit. In: System of Ophthalmology. Vol 13. Pt 2. London: Henry Kimpton; 1974:859931.

2. Margo CE, Mulla ZD. Malignant tumors of the orbit. Analysis of the Florida Cancer Registry. Ophthalmology 1998;105: 185-190.

3. Lee SB, Au Eong KG, Saw SM, et al. Eye cancer incidence in Singapore. Br J Ophthalmol 2000;84:767-770.

4. Anti-Cancer Council or Victoria Epidemiology Centre. Can-

32 part one: current con

Stat—Cancer in Victoria 1999-2001. Melbourne: Anti-Cancer Council of Victoria; 2002.

5. Cancer incidence in Australia. index/.

6. Johansen S, Heegaard S, Bogeskov L, et al. Orbital space-occupying lesions in Denmark 1974-1997. Acta Ophthalmol Scand 2000;78:547-552.

7. Amemiya T, Hayashida H, Dake Y. Metastatic orbital tumors in Japan: a review of the literature. Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2002;9:35-47.

8. Beral V, Newton R. overview of the epidemiology of immunodeficiency-associated cancers. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr 1998; 23:1-6.

9. Ziegler JL, Drew WL, Miner RC, et al. Outbreak of Burkitt's-like lymphoma in homosexual men. Lancet 1982;2:631-633.

10. Antle CM, White VA, Horsman DE, et al. Large cell orbital lymphoma in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Case report and review. Ophthalmology 1990;97:1494-1498.

11. Shapiro AL, Shectman FG, Guida RA, et al. Head and neck lymphoma in patients with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1992;106:258-260.

12. Font RL, Laucirica R, Patrinely JR. Immuno-blastic B-cell lymphoma involving the orbit and maxillary sinus in a patient with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Ophthalmology 1993;100:966-970.

13. Reifler DM, Warzynski MJ, Blount WR, et al. Orbital lymphoma associated with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Surv Ophthalmol 1994;38:371-380.

14. McKelvie P, McNab AA, Francis IC, et al. Ocular adnexal lym-phoproliferative disease. A series of 73 cases. Clin Exp Oph-thalmol 2001;29:387-393.

15. Ziegler JL, Beckstead JA, Volberding PA, et al. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in 90 homosexual men; relation to generalized lymph-adenopathy and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. N Engl J Med 1984;311:565-570.

16. Bouwes Bavinck JN, Feltkarmp M, Struijk L, et al. Human pap-illomavirus infection and skin cancer risk in organ transplant recipients. J Invest Dermatol Symp Proc 2001;6:207-211.

17. Stockfleth E, Ulrich C, Meyer T, et al. Epithelial malignancies in organ transplant patients: clinical presentation and new methods of treatment. Recent Results Cancer Res 2002;160: 251-258.

18. Berg D, Otley LL. Skin cancer in organ transplant recipients: epidemiology, pathogenesis and management. J Am Acad Dermatol 2002;47:1-17.

19. Rady PL, Yen A, Rollefson JL, et al. Herpesvirus-like DNA sequences in non-Kaposi's sarcoma skin lesions of transplant patients. Lancet 1995;345:1339-1340.

20. Franceschi S, Dal Maso L, Arniani S, et al. Risk of cancer other than Kaposi's sarcoma and non-Hodgkins's lymphoma in persons with AIDS in Italy. Cancer and AIDS registry linkage study. Br J Cancer 1998;78:966-970.

21. Wang CY, Brodland DG, Su WP. Skin cancers associated with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Mayo Clin Proc 1995:70:766-772.

22. Nguyen P, Vin-Christian K, Ming ME, et al. Aggressive squa-mous cell carcinomas in persons infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. Arch Dermatol 2002;138:758-763.

23. Sitz KV, Keppen M, Johnson DF. Metastatic basal cell carcinoma in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related complex. JAMA 1987;257:340-343.

24. Collaco L, Gonijalves M, Gomes L, et al. Orbital Kaposi's sarcoma in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Eur J Oph-thalmol 2000;10:88-90.

25. Thomas JO. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated cancers in sub-Saharan Africa. Semin Oncol 2001;28:198-206.

26. Wabinga HR, Parkin DM, Wabwire-Mangen F, et al. Trends in cepts of oncogenesis cancer incidence in Kyadondo County, Uganda, 1960-1997. Br J Cancer 2000;82:1585-1592.

27. Chokunga E, Levy LM, Bassett MT, et al. AIDS and cancer in Africa: the evolving epidemic in Zimbabwe. AIDS 1999;13: 2583-2588.

28. Muccioli C, Belfort R Jr, Burnier M, et al. Squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva in a patient with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Am J Ophthalmol 1996;121:94-96.

29. Fogla R, Biswas J, Kumar SK, et al. Squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva as initial presenting sign in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) due to human immunodeficiency virus type-2. Eye 2000;14:246-247.

30. Kronish JW, Johnson TE, Gilberg SM, et al. Orbital infections in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Ophthalmology 1996;103:1483-1492.

31. Levin LA, Avery R, Shore JW, et al. The spectrum of orbital aspergillosis: a clinicopathological review. Surv Ophthalmol 1996;41:142-154.

32. Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital: case 33-1991. N Engl J Med 1991;325:494-504.

33. Kopp W, Fotter R, Steiner H, et al. Aspergillosis of the paranasal sinuses. Radiology 1985;156:715-716.

34. Ashdown BC, Tien RD, Felsberg GJ. Aspergillosis of the brain and paranasal sinuses in immunocompromised patients: CT and MR imaging findings. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1994;162: 155-159.

35. Austin P, Dekker A, Kennerdell JS. Orbital aspergillosis. Report of a case diagnosed by fine needle aspiration biopsy. Acta Cytol 1983;27:166-169.

36. Jihnson TE, Casiano RR, Kronish JW, et al. Sino-orbital as-pergillosis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Arch Ophthalmol 1999;117:57-64.

37. Denning DW, Stevens DA. Antifungal and surgical treatment of invasive aspergillosis: review of 2,121 published cases. Rev Infect Dis 1990;12:1147-1201.

38. Lopez-Berestein G, Bodey GP, Fainstein V, et al. Treatment of systemic fungal infections with liposomal amphotericin B. Arch Intern Med 1989;149:2533-2536.

39. Slade MP, McNab AA. Fatal mucormycosis associated with deferoxamine therapy. Am J Ophthalmol 1991;112:594-595.

40. McNab AA, McKelvie P. Iron overload is a risk factor for zy-gomycosis. Arch Ophthalmol 1997;115:919-921.

41. Artis WM, Fountain JA, Delcher AK, et al. A mechanism of susceptibility to mucormycosis in diabetic ketoacidosis: trans-ferrin and iron availability. Diabetes 1982;31:109-114.

42. Diamond RD, Haudenschild CC, Erickson NF III. Monocyte mediated damage to Rhizopus oryzae hyphae in vitro. Infect Immunol 1982;38:292-297.

43. Yohai RA, Bullock JD, Aziz AA, et al. Survival factors in rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis. Surv Ophthalmol 1994;39: 3-22.

44. De La Paz MA, Patrinely JR, Marines HM, et al. Adjunctive hyperbaric oxygen therapy in the treatment of bilateral cere-bro-rhino-orbital mucormycosis. Am J Ophthalmol 1992;114: 208-211.

45. Francis BA, Mui AL, Calonje D. Orbital streptococcal gangrene and AIDS. Orbit 2000;20:243-248.

46. Moorthy RS, Smith RE, Rao NA. Progressive ocular toxoplas-mosis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Am J Ophthalmol 1993;115:742-747.

47. Friedberg DN, Warren FA, Lee MH, et al. Pneumocystis carinii of the orbit. Am J Ophthamol 1992;113:595-596.

48. Cano-Parra J, Espana E, Esteban M, et al. Pseudomonas con-junctival ulcer and secondary orbital cellulitis in a patient with AIDS. Br J Ophthalmol 1994;78:72-73.

49. Benson WH, Linberg JV, Weinstein GW. Orbital pseudotumor in a patient with AIDS. Am J Ophthalmol 1988;105:697-698.

50. Fabricius EM, Hoegl I, Pfaeffl W. Ocular myositis as first pre senting symptom of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) infection and its response to high-dose cortisone treatment. Br J Ophthalmol 1991;75:696-697.

51. Templeton AC. Tumors of the eye and adnexa in Africans of Uganda. Cancer 1967;20:1689-1698.

52. Kwong YL, Chan AC, Liang RH. Natural killer cell lym-phoma/leukemia: pathology and treatment. Hematol Oncol 1997;15:71-79.

53. Cheung MM, Chan JK, Lau WH, et al. Primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the nose and nasopharynx: clinical features, tumor immunophenotype, and treatment outcome in 113 patients. J Clin Oncol 1998;16:70-77.

54. Hon C, Kwok AKH, Shek TWH, et al. Vision-threatening complications of nasal T/NK lymphoma. Am J Ophthalmol 2002; 134:406-410.

55. Neel HB. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma: clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. Otolaryngol Clin North Am 1985;18:463-470.

56. Eng Hl, Lin TM, Chen SY, et al. Failure to detect human pap-illomavirus DNA in malignant epithelial neoplasms of conjunctiva by polymerase chain reaction. Am J Clin Pathol 2002;117:429-436.

57. Karcioglu ZA, Tawfik MI. Human papilloma virus in neo-plastic and non neoplastic conditions of the external eye. Br. J. Ophthalmol. 1997;81:595-598.

58. Karcioglu ZA, Toth J. Relation between p53 overexpression and clinical behavior of ocular/orbital invasion of conjuctival squamous cell carcinoma. Ophthal. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 2000; 16:443-449.

59. Scott IU, Karp CL, Nuovo GJ. Human papillomavirus 16 and 18 expression in conjunctival intraepithelial neoplasis. Ophthalmology 2002;109:542-547.

60 Madreperla SA, Green WR, Daniel R, et al. Human papillo-mavirus in primary epithelial tumors of the lacrimal sac. Ophthalmology 1993;100:569-573.

61. Nakamura Y, Mashima Y, Kameyama K, et al. Detection of human papillomavirus in squamous cell tumours of the conjunctiva and lacrimal sac by immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridisation, and polymerase chain reaction. Br J Ophthal-mol 1997;81:308-313.

62. Merle H, Cabre P, Olindo S, et al. Ocular lesions in 200 patients infected by the human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 in Martinique (French West Indies). Am J Ophthalmol 2002; 134:190-195.

63. Lauer SA, Fischer J, Jones J, et al. Orbital T-cell lymphoma in human T-cell leukemia virus-1 infection. Ophthalmology 1988;95:110-115.

64. Yamamoto N, Kiyosawa M, Kawasaki T, et al. Successfully treated optic nerve infiltration with adult T-cell lymphoma. J Neuro-Ophthalmol 1994;14:81-83.

65. Hayashi K, Anda T, Yasanuga A. et al. Intracranial and orbital extension of nasal cavity adult T-cell leukemia: a case report. No Shinkei Geka 1999;27:55-59.

66. Yamaguchi K, Mochizuki M, Watanabe T. et al. Human T lym-photropic virus type 1 uveitis after Graves' disease. Br J Oph-thalmol 1994;78:163-166.

67. Du MQ. Molecular biology of gastric MALT lymphoma: application in clinical management. Hematology 2002;7:339-344.

68. Sanders MK, Peura DA. Helicobacter pylori-associated diseases. Curr Gastroenterol Rep 2002;4:448-454.

69. Vallisa D, Berte R, Rocca A, et al. Association between hepatitis C virus and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and effects of viral infection on histologic subtype and clinical course. Am J Med 1999;106:556-560.

Was this article helpful?

0 0
How To Bolster Your Immune System

How To Bolster Your Immune System

All Natural Immune Boosters Proven To Fight Infection, Disease And More. Discover A Natural, Safe Effective Way To Boost Your Immune System Using Ingredients From Your Kitchen Cupboard. The only common sense, no holds barred guide to hit the market today no gimmicks, no pills, just old fashioned common sense remedies to cure colds, influenza, viral infections and more.

Get My Free Audio Book

Post a comment