Conclusions

Invasion and metastasis are currently recognized as early events in cancer progression. Trends in the management of advanced metastatic disease include the use of molecular techniques for the early diagnosis of disseminated disease and the clinical application of serum markers that may indicate a more precise indication of immunomodulation. The knowledge gained by means of sophisticated molecular techniques involving cell adhesion, proteolysis of the extracellular matrix, migration, and angiogenesis signaling has opened a wide field of novel therapies. The use of agents against growth factor receptors and integrin receptors, matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors, and products inhibiting the signaling pathways underlying metastasis, including oncoprotein signaling cascades and calcium mobilization, may lead to the interruption of the metastatic process in selected patients.

FIGURE 4.4. Orbital venous drainage and the periorbital lymphatic system.

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