Treatment

For a discussion of treatment, see Sect. 2.9.5. 2.9.3.15 Macular Pucker41

Seeding of the retinal surface in the macula by proliferative cells42 leads to wrinkling of the ILM. Collagen production by these cells then results in focal traction with partial- or full-thickness folds, and (cystoid) macular edema. Traumatic EMP usually occurs after contusion, and it is more common after vitreous hemorrhage, retinal detachment, or incomplete vitrec-tomy (i.e., if PVD was not achieved). Inflammation is another contributing factor. The risk of EMP is lower in patients over 50 years of age. The condition may take years to develop.

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