• Decreased visual acuity
• Metamorphopsia, which is best followed by M-charts 43
• Aniseikonia (micropsia or macropsia)
• Diplopia (monocular or binocular) due to foveal dragging 
The most important diagnostic tools are slit lamp biomicroscopy44 and OCT (Fig. 2.9.1).
41 EMP is discussed here because, although a much less serious condition, it is reasonably perceived as a "mini PVR".
42 Mostly fibrous astrocytes, RPE cells, fibrocytes, myofibroblasts, and macrophages; the same as in PVR.
43 Serial Amsler grid testings are inappropriate to determine progression.
44 Use of a contact lens is necessary to detect early cases.
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