• Decreased visual acuity

• Metamorphopsia, which is best followed by M-charts [60]43

• Aniseikonia (micropsia or macropsia)

• Diplopia (monocular or binocular) due to foveal dragging [23]

The most important diagnostic tools are slit lamp biomicroscopy44 and OCT (Fig. 2.9.1).

41 EMP is discussed here because, although a much less serious condition, it is reasonably perceived as a "mini PVR".

42 Mostly fibrous astrocytes, RPE cells, fibrocytes, myofibroblasts, and macrophages; the same as in PVR.

43 Serial Amsler grid testings are inappropriate to determine progression.

44 Use of a contact lens is necessary to detect early cases.

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