• Reduced visual acuity, which may drop to LP even if no other pathology is present [12].

• Difficulty recognizing coexisting anterior segment abnormalities (e.g., cyclodialysis cleft, IOFB in the angle, angle recession).

• Difficulty recognizing coexisting posterior segment abnormalities (e.g., vitreous hemorrhage, retinal detachment).

• Elevated IOP, occurring in up to a quarter of eyes (see below and Chap. 2.18).

• Corneal blood staining, which can make visualization of intraocular pathologies even more difficult. It interferes with visual rehabilitation (see Fig. 2.2.14) and its effect can last for months. The risk is especially high if the hyphema is total, blood absorption is slow, and the IOP is high. If the endothelium is dysfunctional, blood staining can occur even if the IOP is normal [1]. The dark color of a total hyphema (see below) signals a lack of oxygen in the AC, which represents a risk factor for endothelial damage.

• Formation of posterior synechiae.

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