In 1998, the World Health Organization conference on pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) recognized sleep-disordered breathing as a secondary cause of PAH (68). While severe OSA and hypoxemia are more commonly associated with PAH, mild PAH is also common in patients with OSA (69-71). Patients who have been diagnosed with pulmonary hypertension should be evaluated for a sleep-related breathing disorder as a part of the initial diagnostic assessment and should be treated with PAP if OSA is present.
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