Male/female ratio Sleep onset Body habitus

Functional somatic complaints Blood pressure Orthostatic symptoms

All ages, most < 50 at diagnosis 2:1




Low to normal Often

All ages


Overweight-obese Seldom Normal to high Seldom

Abbreviations: OSA, obstructive sleep apnea; UARS, upper airway resistance syndrome.

Data on Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS) indexes (54) in patients with UARS have been reported (55), although this measure has been questioned in the past (56). Lofaso et al. (57) investigated nonapneic snorers with daytime sleepiness (who probably fit the diagnosis of UARS) and found that they had ESS scores > 10. For analysis of our dataset, we chose a combination of ESS > 10 or a sleep-specialist's assessment of sleepiness from a comprehensive patient history indicating sleepiness on more than three days a week. ESS scores in UARS (9.4/24) were significantly lower than in OSA (10.4/24). The clinical usefulness of this absolute difference, however, should be questioned. As to a report of nonrefreshing sleep upon awakening, patients with UARS (77%) did not differ from patients with OSA (75%). Patients with PS presented the lowest frequency (28%) of nonrefreshing sleep being also significantly lower than in patients with OSA (41%) (49).

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