Introduction

Sleep apnea is a relatively common condition with significant adverse health consequences (1). Apneas are classified into three categories: obstructive, central, and mixed. Apnea is deemed to be of central etiology when it is caused by cessation of ventilatory motor output. Central sleep apnea (CSA) is a part of instability in a variety of conditions with diverse etiologies (2). In addition, central apnea is reported to occur at sleep onset. Thus, there is a significant overlap between obstructive and central apnea. This chapter will address the pathophysiology, clinical features, and management of normocapnic and hypercapnic CSA.

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