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Abbreviations: AHI, apnea-hypopnea index; EEG, electroencephalography; OSA, obstructive sleep apnea; Pes, esophageal pressure; REM, rapid eye movement; RERA, respiratory effort-related arousals; UARS, upper airway resistance syndrome.

Abbreviations: AHI, apnea-hypopnea index; EEG, electroencephalography; OSA, obstructive sleep apnea; Pes, esophageal pressure; REM, rapid eye movement; RERA, respiratory effort-related arousals; UARS, upper airway resistance syndrome.

prevalence in the general population, it shows that in a sleep clinic referral population, the female to male ratio for UARS is four-fold larger than for OSA, possibly suggesting a gender-specific genetic basis for inspiratory load compensation during sleep (49).

In children the female to male ratio of UARS appears to be closer to 1:1 (50). Similar gender ratios have been published for snoring in children (51). These data suggest that respiratory load compensation and/or upper airway properties are still similar in boys and girls at this developmental stage where the hormonal profile has not yet differentiated.

Sleep Apnea

Sleep Apnea

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