Epworth Sleepiness Scale

Clinically, the most widely used test for sleepiness is probably the Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS). The popularity of ESS stems in part from its brevity. This, in conjunction with open access for use, its simplicity, and validation studies, has cemented its place in the clinical arena. Developed by Murray Johns (5) at the Epworth Hospital in Melbourne, Australia, the ESS is an eight-item, validated questionnaire asking for a self-reported expectation of "dozing" in different situations. The response set for chance of dozing is: (0) none, (1) slight, (2) moderate, or (3) high. The situations asked about on ESS are: (1) sitting and reading, (2) watching television, (3) sitting and inactive in a public place (e.g., a theater or a meeting), (4) as a passenger in a car

TABLE 1 Instruments Used to Assess Introspective Sleepiness

Test name



Epworth sleepiness scale

Sleep Apnea

Sleep Apnea

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