Prerenal Azotemia

I. Hypovolemia

Hemorrhage, burns, dehydration, gastrointestinal fluid loss, sequestration in extravascular space

II. Low cardiac output

Cardiac failure, arrhythmia, tamponade, massive pulmonary embolus

III. Altered renal-to-systemic vascular resistance ratio

Systemic vasodilation: sepsis, antihypertensives, anaphylaxis Renal vasoconstriction: hypercalcemia, norepinephrine, epinephrine, cyclosporine, amphotericin B Hepatorenal syndrome

IV. Renal hypoperfusion with impairment of renal autoregulatory responses

Cyclooxygenase inhibitors, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors

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