Infectious diseases that involve the nervous system affect millions of people around the world. They constitute the sixth cause of neurological consultation in primary care services and are reported globally by a quarter of WHO's Member States and by half the countries in some parts of Africa and South-East Asia. Neuroinfections are of major importance since ancient times and, even with the advent of effective antibiotics and vaccines, still remain a major challenge in many parts of the world, especially in developing nations.

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