Preclinical and clinical trials are in progress to try to further enhance the specificity and efficacy of cyto-kines by using autologous tumor cells transfected with cytokines such as IL-2 (Bowman et al. 1998a,b), IL-12, GM-CSF, interferon gamma (Bausero et al. 1996;Yoshida et al. 1999),or lymphotactin as vaccines to stimulate the host immune response to the neu-roblastoma. Other vaccine approaches include the use of DNA vaccines (Pertl et al. 2003), or dendritic cell vaccines (Chen et al. 2003).

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