Tumor Markers

Neuroblastoma is one of the few pediatric tumors in which tumor markers have been shown to have a role in the diagnosis, prognosis, and disease monitoring. Generally, the frequency of abnormal levels increases with tumor burden (stage) and cell turnover (Table 7.2). The reference ranges are strongly age-dependent, with considerably higher values the newborn period and infancy.

Table 7.2. Stage dependence of abnormal tumor markers in neuroblastoma.HVA homovanillic acid, VMA vanillylmandelic acid, INSS International Neuroblastoma Staging System

Tumor marker

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