Sara J Abramson Barry L Shulkin

Contents

10.1 Introduction 109

10.2 Imaging Modalities 109

10.2.1 Ultrasonography 109

10.2.2 Computerized Axial Tomography 110

10.2.3 Magnetic Resonance Imaging 112

10.2.4 Bone Scan 113

10.2.5 MIBG Scintigraphy 113

10.2.6 Octreotide Scanning 115

10.2.7 Positron Emission Tomography Scanning 115

10.2.8 Other Tracers 115

10.3 Disease Evaluation 116

10.3.1 Primary Site 116

10.3.2 Local Invasion 116

10.3.3 Distant Metastases 116

10.3.3.1 Bone Metastases 116

10.3.3.2 Bone-Based, Dural-Based, Leptomeningeal, and Brain Metastases 116

10.3.3.3 Marrow Metastasis 117

10.4 Prenatally Diagnosed Neuroblastoma 118

10.5 Stage-4S Neuroblastoma 118

10.6 Evaluation of Disease Response 120

10.7 Conclusion 120

References 120

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