Only a small number of studies have focused on the neurocognitive impact of the intensive therapy that received high-risk neuroblastoma patients (Kelaghan et al. 1988; Simms et al. 1988; Kramer et al. 1992; Phipps et al. 1995; Mitby et al. 2003; Notteghem et al. 2003). Risk factors for neurocognitive impairment include age less than 3 years, high-dose chemotherapy with autologous bone marrow transplantation, and cranial radiation (Phipps et al. 2000). The impact of TBI on the neurocognitive impairment remains controversial (Simms et al. 1988; Kramer et al. 1992; Phipps et al. 1995; Phipps et al. 2000). Notteghem et al. (2003) recently reviewed the neuropsychological outcomes of 46 high-risk neuroblastoma patients with a mean follow-up of 9.1 years. Survivors of neuroblas-toma had an overall performance and skills in the normal range; however, patients who were younger than 3 years when they received the treatment had more visuospatial difficulties and a worse visual memory. Furthermore, hearing loss due to cisplatin was associated with defects in verbal performance (Notteghem et al. 2003).

A recent CCSS study evaluated the educational achievement of a large cohort of childhood cancer survivors. Compared with normal siblings, neurob-lastoma survivors were significantly more likely to use special education services because of lower tests scores, and were significantly less likely to complete high school (odds ratio 1.7); however, when the neu-roblastoma survivors received special education services, risk estimates approximated those of the sibling population. In the same study, age at diagnosis under 6 years and cranial radiation were associated independently with the use of special education services among all the survivors (Mitby et al. 2003). In contrast, another study reported a similar educational achievement between survivors of neuroblas-toma and siblings (Kelaghan et al. 1988).

Hearing Aids Inside Out

Hearing Aids Inside Out

Have you recently experienced hearing loss? Most probably you need hearing aids, but don't know much about them. To learn everything you need to know about hearing aids, read the eBook, Hearing Aids Inside Out. The book comprises 113 pages of excellent content utterly free of technical jargon, written in simple language, and in a flowing style that can easily be read and understood by all.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment