Musculoskeletal

Musculoskeletal effects include scoliosis, kyphosis, hypoplasia, and fibrosis of bone and soft tissues, as well as slipped capital femoral epiphysis (Mayfield et al. 1981; Pastore et al. 1982; Kajanti 1983). Most of the patients who develop scoliosis have been treated with moderate to high doses of orthovoltage radiation therapy (1500-5000 cGy) and received asymmetric irradiation of the spine. Some patients were also irradiated under 6 months of age, while others underwent laminectomy for epidural disease (Mayfield et al. 1981; Pastore et al. 1982; Kajanti 1983).

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