Mediastinal Tumors

Figure 11.4.2 illustrates the approach for posterior mediastinal primary tumors that do not involve the thoracic inlet. A muscle-sparing approach is often feasible for tumors that are not large. Access to the ipsilateral upper extremity allows nerve stimulation of the T1 nerve root of the brachial plexus which may dip down into the thoracic cavity. Injury to the sympathetic fibers near the stellate ganglion may result in postoperative Horner's syndrome. The recurrent and phrenic nerves are also at risk.

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