How Neuroblastoma Escapes the Innate and Adaptive Immune Systems

Neuroblastoma employs a variety of tactics to evade the immune system (Table 14.2). It downregulates "immune-activating" while overexpressing "immune-inhibitory" receptors. By repressing the expression of class-I and class-II MHC (Lampson et al. 1983) as well as CD1d (Metelitsa et al. 2001), they interfere with both the afferent and efferent arms of adaptive immune response. In addition, NB cells can avoid immune recognition and destruction by releas

Table 14.2. Neuroblastoma can evade the immune system

Immune function

Modulated Ags

Escape mechanism used by NB

Adaptive immunity T cells

0MHC Class I 0Adhesion

0ß2m, 0TAP1,0TAP2,0LMP2,0LMP7* 0ICAM2,0ICAM3,0LFA3

Innate immunity NK cells

NKT cells Complement

0Activation

Tinhibition

0Activation

Tinhibition

^Inhibition

0MICA (cytoplasmic), 0MICB (cytoplasmic) (Raffaghello et al.2004)

Soluble MICA (Doubrovina et al. 2003; Raffaghello et al. 2004)

0CD1d

CD46, TCD59

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