Histology Cytology

According to the International Neuroblastoma Staging System and International Neuroblastoma Response Criteria (Brodeur et al. 1993), BM studies evaluated by histologic or cytomorphologic examinations of biopsy specimens and of aspirates from bilateral anterior and bilateral posterior iliac crests are part of the extent-of-disease evaluation. It is also important to perform both biopsy and aspirate at different sites to achieve the highest detection sensitivity (Aronica et al. 1998); how-ever,the sensitivity of tumor detection is relatively low, and thus the true prevalence of BM disease can be grossly underestimated (Cheung et al. 1997; Mehes et al. 2003). Nevertheless,histology and cytology are often used as the gold standard against which new detection techniques are measured (Cheung et al. 1998).

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