There is now an increasing selection of animal models in which to evaluate experimental therapy of neu-roblastoma. No one model fits all. Instead, a specific model may have a restricted but valuable role. As yet, there is limited data on the role of the transgenic MYCN model in developmental therapeutics, but undoubtedly this will emerge; however, retrospective analysis of why the significant efficacy of cytotoxic or other agents in mice fail to translate into clinical responses suggests that direct translation from any murine model to humans needs considerable caution irrespective of the tumor model being used. Despite the limitations, clearly these models are useful in identifying novel approaches to neuroblastoma treatment.

Acknowledgements. Work from this laboratory was supported by CA23099 and CA21765 (Cancer Center Support) grants from NIH.

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