It is clear that comprehensive molecular studies will have a significant effect on research in cancer biology and oncology. It is also clear that these techniques should be used with discretion and common sense to avoid over interpretation of the large volumes of data, much of which has yet to be validated. Nonetheless, analysis of human tissue samples with a carefully controlled experimental design and rigorous data analysis could lead to new discoveries in gene-function relationships that will complement traditional focused experiments in model systems. Advanced molecular techniques may provide the tools to better understand the clinically heterogeneity and complex biology of NB. Although there are many challenges in moving complex assays from research laboratories to practical utility in diagnostic medicine, the significant potential for identifying therapeutic targets and improving treatment for children with high-risk disease make this a task worth pursuing.

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