Clinical Presentation

Intermediate-risk neuroblastomas usually present with symptoms and signs from mass effects of the primary tumor or of the metastatic deposits; however, unsuspected cases of intermediate-risk neuro-blastomas may be detected during routine physical examination, by measuring catecholamine levels in urine (as in neonatal screening programs), or when imaging studies are performed for other reasons, e.g., X-ray for suspected pneumonia or antenatal ultrasonography (Sauvat et al. 2002).

Chapter 11

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