Tlr9

Bacteria

Unmethylated CpG DNA

* References are found in the text and in [19]. Some of the proposed TLR ligands have later been shown to contain contaminants (LPS, lipopeptides) [88-90], This should be kept in mind when evaluating new TLR ligands that are isolated from a source that also contains an established ligand to the same TLR.

* References are found in the text and in [19]. Some of the proposed TLR ligands have later been shown to contain contaminants (LPS, lipopeptides) [88-90], This should be kept in mind when evaluating new TLR ligands that are isolated from a source that also contains an established ligand to the same TLR.

in cells of the CNS, including microglia, and this would certainly provide a mechanism for the initiation of proinflammatory responses in the brain [12-17]. Thus, the role of TLRs in CNS immunology and pathophysiology make up an exciting area of future research. Here we will review how macrophages utilise TLRs to recognise microbes and activate inflammation.

3. RECOGNITION BY TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS (TLRS)

The TLRs are archetypal PRRs [18-20]. Toll was first discovered in Drosophila where it has a role in dorsoventral patterning. Subsequently it was demonstrated that dToll also functions as an immune receptor that participates in host defence to fungi and Gram-positive bacteria [9], Since then, a large number of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have been found in a wide array of species, and in most cases they act as PRRs in host defence. Like dToll, they are type I transmembrane proteins that have extracellular leucine rich repeats (LRR), and intracellular signalling domains that are homologous to the signalling domains of the interleukin-1 and interleukin-18 receptors (TIRs). As will be documented below, specific TLRs recognise specific PAMPs and stimulate specific inflammatory pathways (Table I and Fig. 2). In this review we will focus exclusively on mammalian TLRs. Both humans and mice have TLRs 1-9; TLR10 in humans is non-functional in mice. However, two additional mouse TLRs are found in databases (TLR11 and TLR12).

Natural Treatments For Psoriasis

Natural Treatments For Psoriasis

Do You Suffer From the Itching and Scaling of Psoriasis? Or the Chronic Agony of Psoriatic Arthritis? If so you are not ALONE! A whopping three percent of the world’s populations suffer from either condition! An incredible 56 million working hours are lost every year by psoriasis sufferers according to the National Psoriasis Foundation.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment