References

1. Metchnikoff E. Immunity in infective diseases. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ Press; 1907.

2. Silverstein AM. The History of Immunology. In Fundamental Immunology, Third Ed. Paul WE. Ed. Raven Press, New York. 1993; pp. 21-41.

3. Selye H. A syndrome produced by diverse nocuous agents. Nature (Lond) 1936; 138: 32.

4. Selye H. The general adaptation syndrome and the diseases of adaptation. J Clin Endocrinol 1946; 6: 117-230.

Preface

Natural immunity is commonly considered to refer to the first line of host defence against microbial pathogens which provides protection before the development of the adaptive immune response. However the recent progressive explosion in molecular, cellular, animal and human research which has dramatically expanded our concept of the natural immune system and its functions, has been captured in this volume. Natural immunity is presented in its broadest terms focusing on the incredible richness in cellular and humoural mediators, their evolutionary origins in ancient times, their intimate interaction with the neuroendocrine system and their unquestionable ability to provide an interactive and multilayered defence against pathogenic invasion all of which must also be considered in the context of their less well acknowledged physiological roles in essential, complex biological processes. The aim of this volume is to mark the significant expansion in our understanding of the scope of natural immunity in order to strengthen the rational basis for both fundamental and applied research on the natural immune system.

Donna A. Chow

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Acknowledgements

Donna A. Chow wishes to acknowledge the research support of The Bayer, Canadian Blood Services, Héma Québec Partnership Fund. We are grateful to Mrs. Susan Ness and Dr. Arthur Chow who assisted in the preparation of this volume and to Dr. Istvan Berczi who consistently provided excellent guidance, support and enthusiasm for the project.

Lorând Bertok is grateful to Mrs. Éva Major-Foki, Mrs. Mârta Horvâth-Lovâsz and to Dr. Andrâs Székely for the preparation of this volume, and to Dr. Istvan Berczi for his friendly help and cooperation.

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List of Contributors

Alan Aderem

The Institute for Systems Biology, Seattle, Washington

Laura N. Arneson

Department of Immunology, Mayo Graduate School, Mayo Clinic Rochester, Rochester, Minnesota

Istvan Berczi

Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada

Lorând Bertok

"Fodor Jâzsef' National Center of Public Health, "Frédéric Joliot-Curie" National Research Institute for Radiobiology and Radiohygiene, Budapest, Hungary

Steven E. Bosinger

Division of Experimental Therapeutics, University Health Network, Toronto General Research Institute, Toronto General Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada

Department of Microbiology & Immunology, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada

Cheryl M. Cameron

Department of Microbiology & Immunology, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada

Mark J. Cameron

Division of Experimental Therapeutics, University Health Network, Toronto General Research Institute, Toronto General Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada

Miriam Capri

Department of Experimental Pathology, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy Donna A. Chow

Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada

Jeff C. Coombs

Division of Experimental Therapeutics, University Health Network, Toronto General Research Institute, Toronto General Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada

Edwin L. Cooper

Laboratory of Comparative Neuroimmunology, Department of Neurobiology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, University of California, Los Angeles, California

Mark E. Devries

Division of Experimental Therapeutics, University Health Network, Toronto General

Research Institute, Toronto General Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada

Department of Microbiology & Immunology, University of Western Ontario, London, ON,

Canada

Adrian J. Dunn

Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, Louisiana

Trude H. Flo

The Institute for Systems Biology, Seattle, Washington

Christiana Fumelli

Department of Experimental Pathology, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy

Claudio Franceschi

Department of Experimental Pathology, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy

Ronald B. Herberman

University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Department of Medicine and Pathology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Karoline A. Hoisawa

Division of Experimental Therapeutics, University Health Network, Toronto General Research Institute, Toronto General Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada

Department of Microbiology & Immunology, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada

Kenneth M. Huttner

Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School and the MassGeneral Hospital for Children, Boston, Massachussetts

Elizabeth Husztik

Institute of Pathophysiology, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary

David J. Kelvin

Division of Experimental Therapeutics, University Health Network, Toronto General Research Institute, Toronto General Hospital, Toronto, Canada

Susan J. Larson

Department of Psychology, Concordia College, Moorhead, Minnesota

Georege Lazar

Institute of Pathophysiology, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary

Georege Lazar Jr.

Department of Surgery, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary

Paul J. Leibson

Department of Immunology, Mayo Graduate School, Mayo Clinic Rochester, Rochester, Minnesota

Francesco Lescai

Department of Experimental Pathology, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy Daniela Monti

Department of Experimental Pathology and Oncology, University of Florence, Florence, Italy

Bente Klarlund Pedersen, MD

The Copenhagen Muscle Research Centre and The Department of Infectious Diseases, Righospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

Stefano Salvioli

Department of Experimental Pathology, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy Hector R. Wong

Division of Critical Care Medicine, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Centre, Children 's Hospital Research Foundation, Cincinnati, Ohio

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Contents

Foreword v

Istvan Berczi, Lorand Bertok, Donna A. Chow

Preface vii

Donna A. Chow

Acknowledgements ix

Donna A. Chow

List of Contributors xi

I. Host Defense Mechanisms

Host Defense: An Interaction of Neuroendocrine-, Metabolic and Immune

Mechanisms in the Interest of Survival 3

Istvan Berczi, Lorand Bertok and Donna A. Chow

II. Epithelial, Secretory and Endogenous Host Defense

Antimicrobial Peptides - The Defense Never Rests 29

Kenneth M. Huttner

Endogenous Cytoprotective Mechanisms 49

Hector R. Wong

The Role of Bile Acids in Natural Resistance: Physico-Chemical Host Defense 67

Lorand Bertok

III. The Natural Immune System

A Historical Introduction of Natural Killer (NK) Cells and Current Status of

Their Role in Host Defenses 81

Ronald B. Herberman

The Role of the Reticuloendothelial System in Natural Immunity 95

George Lazar, Elizabeth Husztik and George Lazar Jr.

Effector Mechanisms of Natural Immunity: an Invertebrate Perspective 103

Edwin L. Cooper

Natural Immune Activation: Stimulators/Receptors 123

Donna A. Chow

Signalling in Natural Immunity: Natural Killer Cells 151

Laura N. Arneson and Paul J. Leibson

Pathogen Recognition by Toll-like Receptors 167

Trude H. Flo and Alan Aderem

IV. Regulation of Natural Immunity

Molecular Control of Leukocyte Trafficking - Internal Regulatory Circuits of the

Immune System: Leukocyte Circulation and Homing 185

Steven E. Bosinger, Karoline A. Hoisawa, Cheryl M. Cameron, Mark E. Devries, Jeff C. Coombs, Mark J. Cameron and David J. Kelvin

Neuroendocrine Regulation of Natural Immunity 215

Istvan Berczi

Natural Immunity - Effect of Exercise 263

Beute K. Pedersen

New Prospect for the Enhancement of Natural Immunity 289

V. Physiological, Pathological and Behavioral Significance

Physiological Activities of the Natural Immune System 311

Donna A. Chow

Pathological Relevance of the Natural Immune System 331

Stefano Salvioli, Miriam Capri, Cristiana Fumelli, Francesco Lescal, Daniela Monti, Claudio Franceschi

Behavioral Mechanisms for Defense Against Pathogens 351

Susan J. Larson, Adrian Dunn

Keyword Index 369

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