Amsterdam Boston London New York Oxford Paris San Diego San Franciso Singapore Sydney Tokyo

ELSEVIER B.V. Sara Burgerhartstraat 25 P.O. Box 211,1000 AE Amsterdam, The Netherlands

ELSEVIER Inc.

525 B Street

Suite 1900 San Diego

CA 92101-4495, USA

ELSEVIER Ltd. The Boulevard Langford Lane, Kidlington, Oxford OX5 1GB, UK

ELSEVIER Ltd.

84 Theobalds Road London WC1X 8RR UK

© 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

This work is protected under copyright by Elsevier B.V., and the following terms and conditions apply to its use:

Photocopying

Single photocopies of single chapters may be made for personal use as allowed by national copyright laws. Permission of the Publisher and payment of a fee is required for all other photocopying, including multiple or systematic copying, copying for advertising or promotional purposes, resale, and all forms of document delivery. Special rates are available for educational institutions that wish to make photocopies for non-profit educational classroom use.

Permissions may be sought directly from Elsevier's Rights Department in Oxford, UK: phone (444) 1865 843830, fax (+44) 1865 853333, e-mail: [email protected]. Requests may also be completed on-line via the Elsevier homepage (http://www. elsevier.com/locate/permissions).

In the USA, users may clear permissions and make payments through the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc., 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, USA; phone: (+1) (978) 7508400, fax: (+1) (978) 7504744, and in the UK through the Copyright Licensing Agency Rapid Clearance Service (CLARCS), 90 Tottenham Court Road, London W1P OLP, UK; phone: (+44) 20 7631 5555; fax: (+44) 20 7631 5500. Other countries may have a local reprographic rights agency for payments.

Derivative Works

Tables of contents may be reproduced for internal circulation, but permission of the Publisher is required for external resale or distribution of such material. Permission of the Publisher is required for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations.

Electronic Storage or Usage

Permission of the Publisher is required to store or use electronically any material contained in this work, including any chapter or part of a chapter.

Except as outlined above, no part of this work may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior written permission of the Publisher. Address permissions requests to: Elsevier's Rights Department, at the fax and e-mail addresses noted above.

No responsibility is assumed by the Publisher for any injury and/or damage to persons or property as a matter of products liability, negligence or otherwise, or from any use or operation of any methods, products, instructions or ideas contained in the material herein. Because of rapid advances in the medical sciences, in particular, independent verification of diagnoses and drug dosages should be made.

First edition 2005

Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data A catalog record is available from the Library of Congress.

British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record is available from the British Library.

Notice

ISBN: 0-444-51755-3 ISSN: 1567-7443 (Series)

@ The paper used in this publication meets the requirements of ANSI/NISO Z39.48-1992 (Permanence of Paper). Printed in The Netherlands.

Foreword

Susceptibility and resistance to disease have been known to people since prehistoric times. Catastrophic epidemic diseases in medieval times provided ample evidence for both of these concepts. Environmental effects were also identified as one of the factors that affect resistance to disease. The expression "catching a cold" refers to this association. Pasteur made observations between the relationship of chicken cholera (pasteurellosis) and the weather and Koch examined the effect of swimming in cold water on the susceptibility of chickens to anthrax [1], Mediaeval shepherds knew that if they saved the scabs from pox lesions and inoculated young animals with this material, the disease could be prevented. Jenner and Ehrlich popularized this knowledge and the concept of adaptive immunity was born [2], However, it was clear from numerous examples that adaptive immunity was not fully responsible for resistance to disease. With the advent of virology, it became apparent that there is species specific resistance. This means that a particular virus cannot cause disease in some host species but it could do it in other species. This is also true for bacteria, but the host-restrictions are often not as strict as for viruses. It was also obvious that healthy animals and human beings do demonstrate nonspecific resistance to infections and a number of other insults, which may be caused by diverse noxious agents. The term "nonspecific" was adopted in relation to adaptive immunity, which is antigen specific. Hans Selye described a syndrome elicited by diverse noxious agents [3], which he later named the stress response that resulted in elevated resistance to countless stressors. Physical, chemical, biological and in man even emotional agents could act as stressors. During the stress response the hypothalamus pituitary adrenal axis was activated, the thymus exhibited a profound shrinkage, atrophy of lymphoid organs and immunosuppression also occurred, except for gamma globulin, which was elevated. Stressed animals showed increased resistance to numerous noxious insults, and this was named by Selye the general adaptation syndrome [4], Selye knew that in some way he was dealing with the immune system, but it was not possible to understand in those days the mechanisms involved. All that immunologists could see at the time was that the thymus was involuted and adaptive immunity was seriously suppressed or even eliminated by stress. This was in sharp contrast with Selye's conclusion that the stress response was an adaptive defence reaction.

In this book the natural immune system is presented. Its relationship to the adaptive immune system, the neuroendocrine system and to the entire host organism is discussed. This is the system we are born with and it will be with us for life. Most species of the animal kingdom rely on this immune system as the adaptive system is found only in vertebrates. The natural immune system protects us not only from infectious agents, but also from various noxious agents, and during acute danger, this system kicks into high gear, which manifests in febrile illness. In contrast with the commonly held perception, fever is a defence reaction, called the acute phase response. It is a very successful defence response as most people with febrile illness recover and become healthy again. The natural immune system also plays important physiological roles as presented in this volume. Clearly this is an incredibly effective system, which protects us practically from any kind of insult, and it is able to increase our resistance with unparalleled efficiency. Innate immune mechanisms are deeply embedded in our development and physiology.

This system provides the foundations for the adaptive immune system, which could not function or even exist without our innate system. There is little doubt that the recognition and appreciation of this system is a major milestone in Biology and is a perfect topic to be presented as volume 5 of Neuroimmune Biology.

Istvan Beczi, Lorand Bertok, Donna Chow

Natural Treatments For Psoriasis

Natural Treatments For Psoriasis

Do You Suffer From the Itching and Scaling of Psoriasis? Or the Chronic Agony of Psoriatic Arthritis? If so you are not ALONE! A whopping three percent of the world’s populations suffer from either condition! An incredible 56 million working hours are lost every year by psoriasis sufferers according to the National Psoriasis Foundation.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment