Pr39

Asparlic acid DDDDDDD, GDDDDDD Figure 1. Chemical structural classification of some well-studied mammalian antimicrobial peptides (modified from 3 with permission). cursor molecules are prepropeptides containing a signalling pre- sequence, a neutralizing propeptide and the carboxy-terminal defensin that is liberated following multiple processing steps. Nearly all mammalian defensins contain six cysteine molecules participating in three disulfide bonds. They can be sorted broadly into three...

The Effect Of Rdlps On The Endocrine System

LPS affects the membrane and TSH receptor of follicular cells in the thyroid 34,35 , We demonstrated in rats that RD-LPS, although it decreases T4 (thyroxin) level in the serum, has no significant effect on the membrane and TSH receptor of follicular cells, and TSH was found to be effective in the stimulation of T4 production. This indicates that RD-LPS is not capable of inducing membrane alterations, which would damage membrane receptors, yet it affects membranes as indicated by the induction...

The Interaction Of Rdlps With The Complement System

The complement system is fundamental to host defence, and LPS is capable of activating this system. Therefore, it was important to examine RD-LPS from this point of view and to compare it with toxic LPS. Ionizing radiation decreased, in a dose-dependent manner, the hypotensive (in dogs) and shock-inducing capacity (in dogs and rats) and complement-activating capacity of LPS. Thus, both the lethal and anti-complement effect of LPS was decreased by ionizing radiation. We observed that LPS is...

Info

Bruunsgaard H, Andersen-Ranberg K, Jeune B, Pedersen AN, Skinhoj P, Pedersen BK. A high plasma concentration of TNFalpha is associated with dementia in centenarians. J Gerontol A Biol Sei Med Sei 1999 54(7) M357-64. Bastard JP, Jardel C, Bruckert E, Blondy P, Capeau J, Laville M, et al. Elevated levels of interleukin 6 are reduced in serum and subcutaneous adipose tissue of obese women after weight loss. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2000 85(9) 3338 12. Pickup JC, Chusney GD, Thomas SM, Burt D....

Chemokine Regulation Of Homing Within Natural Killer Cell Mediated Immunity

Natural killer (NK) cells are lymphoid-lineage cells that regulate innate immunity, primarily against tumour cells or virus infected host cells. Phenotypically, NK cells are defined by their surface expression of CD56 and lack of CD3 67 . Approximately 90 of human NK cells in the periphery exhibit a CD56dimCD 16 (FcyRIII)hi phenotype, while the remainder are CD56bri8lllCD16 low 68 . Functional studies based on this phenotypic dichotomy have indicated that CD56dimCD 16hi are more efficient at...

Gnathostomata

Simplified evolutionary tree showing the major divisions into the protostome and dcuierostomc invertebrates. Vertebrates are derived from the deuterostome line yet certain ncuroendocrincimmunc characteristics have been shown lobe common among ihc members of these different group . The protostome and deuterostome characterization is based upon the formation of the mouth. Modified from a version by Dr. Arnaud Lacoste, Post-Doctoral Fellow, Psychoncu-roimmunology Program UCLA (Based upon...

Natural Immune Cellular Activation

Macrophages are a heterogeneous group of cells including circulating monocytes and tissue resident macrophages. They are phagocytic, performing a major function contributing to the innate immune response by ingesting microbes and killing them intracellularly. Several different structural families contribute receptors which participate in phagocytosis 121,122 . Endocytosis has been demonstrated for FcRs (IgSF), CR3 (integrin) and the mannose-receptor (lectin), while CR1 (lectin) and CR4...

Regulation Of Natural Immunity

Leukocyte migration is essential for reactions to inflammatory stimuli at various locations in the body. However, leukocyte movement is also crucial during non-inflammatory processes such as haematopoietic development and routine passage through secondary lymphoid organs, which is also required for effective antigen presentation. Immune defects occur in chemokine receptor deficient mice. Chemokines, their receptors and adhesion molecules play a key role in the regulation of the immune response...

References

Approaching the asymptote Evolution and revolution in immunology. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol 1989 54 Pt 1 1-13. 2. Janeway CA, Jr. The immune system evolved to discriminate infectious nonself from noninfectious self. Immunol Today 1992 13(1) 11-6. 3. Medzhitov R, Janeway CA, Jr. On the semantics of immune recognition. Res Immunol 1996 147(4) 208-l 4. 4. Medzhitov R, Janeway CA, Jr. Innate immunity impact on the adaptive immune response. Curr Opin Immunol 1997 9(l) 4-9. 5....

Noradrenaline And Adrenergic Signaling

Apoptosis and the invertebrate neuroimmune response Apoptosis contributes to maintenance and preservation of a balanced immune system in vertebrates. With the exception of mollusks, information is scarce concerning apoptotic processes and regulation of immunity in other invertebrates. NA a catecholamine produced by the neuroendo-crineimmune system induces apoptosis in oyster hemocytes. The apoptosis-inducing effect of NA can be mimicked by isoproterenol and blocked by propranolol,...

Signals For Deactivation And Apoptosis

As one of the immune system's most powerful front-line defences, NK cells must be tightly regulated to prevent attacks on healthy cells or initiation of excessive immune responses. Several mechanisms serve to provide the needed regulation. Once an NK cell kills its target it may go on to kill other targets, become inactivated, or undergo activation-induced cell death (AICD). Although the NK cell's ability to initiate signals in response to activating and inhibitory ligands on a target cell does...

Complement

Innate and adaptive immunity and the role of complement Adaptive immunity in vertebrates can be traced to the appearance of ancestral RAG genes in ancestral jawed vertebrates. Innate immunity is more ancient and appeared about 450 million years ago. The complement system a central subsystem within innate immunity has been identified throughout the animal groups but seems to be restricted to deuterostomes. The evolutionary history of complement can be traced from sea urchins (phylum...

The Heat Shock Response

The heat shock response is another fundamental endogenous cytoprotective mechanism found in virtually all organisms 52-55 , Originally described in Drosophila 56 , it is now known to occur throughout the animal kingdom from prokaryotes through humans. The heat shock response is defined by the rapid expression of a class of proteins known as heat shock proteins, when a cell, tissue, or intact organism is exposed to elevated temperatures. In addition, heat shock proteins can be induced by a wide...

The Protection Of Res By Rdlps Against Radiation And Alcoholinduced Injury

The reticuloendothelial system (RES) plays an important role in host defence by the removal of foreign material. For this reason we have examined the effect of RD-LPS on RES activity. A method of isotope (tKI,nTc-lahelled nanoalbumon microcolloid) removal from the blood was established. This method is very sensitive and is suitable for the detection of granulopetic activity and efficiency. The clearance curve that described RES activity was of exponential nature and it was well characterized by...

The Effect Of Bile Acids On Viruses

One may ask the question whether or not the protective effect of bile acid detergents is limited to bacterial endotoxins. Theiler observed that the virus of yellow fever and other 'arthropod-borne' viruses (belonging to the Toga group) are inactivated by bile or sodium deoxycholate. In contrast, the poliovirus, the virus of mouse encephalitis and endocarditis and Coxsackie viruses resist such treatment 38 . This observation served as a basic principle for the classification of viruses according...

Natural Immunity And The Neuroendocrine System

What are some of the general features of the neuroendocrineimmune system The immune system has been referred to as the mobile brain because of shared molecules between the nervous, endocrine and immune systems, the three regulators that govern and control homeostasis a balanced milieu. Opinions concerning the significance of these interrelations are divided. There are those who view the whole organism and therefore favor a unifying theme with respect to the three systems central nervous system...

Bile Acid Composition Of Various Species

In relation to the importance of bile acids in host defence against endotoxins one may ask the question whether or not bile composition plays a role in the endotoxin sensitivity resistance of various species 45 , We have observed earlier that there are major differences in bile acid composition of bile obtained from sensitive (e.g., man, cow, guinea pig) and resistant species (e.g., birds, fish) 39 , It is interesting to note that there is a direct correlation between endotoxin sensitivity and...

Immune System Evolution

Invertebrate ancestors and the protostome line the Japanese horseshoe crab Because invertebrates lack an adaptive immune system, to survive they evolved effective intrinsic defence strategies against a variety of microbial pathogens. This ancient form of host defence, innate immunity, is present in all multicellular organisms including humans. The Japanese horseshoe crab Tachypleus tridentatus, is a model protostome organism. Its innate immune system includes a hemolymph coagulation system...

Introduction

The increased attention focussed on the natural immune response over the past decade has markedly expanded our knowledge regarding the number of the mediators and range of their functions, and has renewed interest and discussion on issues associated with the natural immune system including the evolutionary pressure for the development of the system and its relationship with the adaptive response. The natural immune system has long been considered a first line of defence against invading...

The Acute Phase Response To Exercise

Initially, it was thought that the cytokine response to exercise represented a reaction to exercise-induced muscle injury or transposition of lipopolysacharide (LPS) to the gut. However, recent data suggest that the massive response of IL-6 to exercise may primarily mediate important exercise-related metabolic changes 4,5 . Several cytokines can be detected in plasma during and after strenuous exercise 6-8 . Most studies report that exercise does not induce an increase in plasma levels of TNF-a...

Protective Effect Of Bile Acids Preparations Against Endotoxin Shock

On the basis of the above experiments therapeutic preparations of bile acids (DETERTOXON-S and B) have been produced which seem to be beneficial for the treatment of entero-endotox-aemia in newborns 27 , Comparative pathological studies conducted during these therapeutic trials demonstrated that these preparations were able to decrease mortality due to E. coli diarrhoea. For instance, in a cattle herd 195 calves received conventional treatment and 23 of them died, whereas after the treatment of...

Repetitive Bouts Of Exercise

In contrast to a vast number of investigations on immune cell responses to a single bout of exercise, there is limited information on how repeated bouts of exercise on the same day affect the immune system. The few studies that have measured changes in concentration and function of leukocytes associated with repeated bouts of exercise have all used different exercise and recovery protocols, as well as subjects with varying training status 43,146,147 . A methodological limitation that applies to...

Bile Acids And Psoriasis

In our view, psoriasis, a condition considered to be inherited in a polygenic manner 40J, is also associated with bile or bile acid deficiency, as in most cases supplementation of the usual treatment with bile acids will diminish the severity of the clinical signs within a short period. One of my co-workers (Klara Gyurcsovics) treated a total of 551 psoriasis patients with bile acids (Suprachol Acidum dehydrocholicum) given orally for 1-8 weeks. The clinical efficacy of the treatment was...

The Il6 Response To Exercise

Interleukin-6 is produced in larger amounts than any other cytokine in relation to exercise. IL-6 is produced by many different cells, but the main sources in vivo are stimulated monocytes macrophages, fibroblasts and vascular endothelial cells 28 , indicative of its role in modulation of the immune system. Other cells known to express IL-6 include keratinocytes, osteoblasts, T cells, B cells, neutrophils, eosinophils, mast cells, smooth muscle cells 28 and skeletal muscle cells 29 . Until now,...

Monocyte Migration To Sites Of Inflammation

Monocytes play an important role in the immune network as one of the first lines of defence against inflammatory challenge. Monocytes develop in the bone marrow, enter the circulation, and subsequently enter tissues of the body where they differentiate into tissue macrophages and dendritic cells. Under inflammatory conditions, the number of monocytes leaving the circulation doubles that under homeostatic conditions 52 , CCL2 monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP) -1 has been long known to...

Leukocyte Homing Within Secondary Lymphoid Organs

Acquired immunity is perhaps the most significant evolutionary advancement of the vertebrate immune system. This system is dependent on the ability of circulating lymphocytes to migrate from the periphery to secondary lymphoid organs such as the lymph nodes, Peyer's patches, and spleen 127,128 , Constant circulation of lymphocytes through the lymphoid and circulatory systems provides an effective means to present captured foreign antigen to the lymphocyte repertoire. Homeostatic chemokines are...

Abstract

There is a resurgence of interest in the duality of the immune system innate, natural, non-specific, non-anticipatory, non-clonal responses of invertebrates adaptive, induced, specific, anticipatory, clonal responses of vertebrates. Natural immunity is considered the most primitive and found in both groups, although invertebrates do not possess the adaptive system. Using monoclonal antibodies to human adhesion molecules, earthworm, leech and sipunculan leukocytes are positive for many CD...

M

Macrophages 136,167-170, 172,314 macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM- CSF)217, 337 macrophage inflammatory protein la 191,264,334,337 lp 191,264 macrophage mannose-binding receptors 125 MAGE1 333 mammals 105 mannan-binding lectins See MBL marathon running 263 MARTI 333 mast cells 265 maternal separation 361,362 matrilysin 32 MBL 234 M cells 199 mesenteric lymph nodes 199 metabolic syndrome 235 metallothionein (MT) 232 metastases 86 MHC 83 inhibition based 133 MICA 333 MICB 333 microsomal...