Lavage Quick Reference: (lav-arge) To wash out (a cavity). ^

Advanced Reference: Indicates to wash out a body cavity, e.g. peritoneal i= lavage, pulmonary lavage. 2

Lead apron Quick Reference: Radiation protection device. |

Advanced Reference: Worn during surgical procedures when X-ray is ^

being used. Fits over the shoulders and should be of adequate length to ®

cover the reproductive organs. Comprised of a lead interior covered g>

with plastic or leather. Great care should be taken in handling and stor- fj age as the lead interior is prone to cracking, and so lose the protective S. properties.


LeFort Quick Reference: A classification of facial fractures.

Advanced Reference: The LeFort classification is a useful tool to determine the appropriate method of reduction and stabilisation. LeFort 1 is a transverse fracture of the maxilla. LeFort 2 is a pyramidal fracture of the frontal process of the maxilla, the nasal bones and the orbital floor. LeFort 3 includes both zygomas, namely maxillas and nasal bones; also the ethmoid, sphenoid and outer orbital bones.

Legionnaire's disease Quick Reference: Disease spread via airborne water droplets.

Advanced Reference: The name stems from an outbreak of a pneumonialike disease which occurred in Philadelphia in 1976 at a convention of the American Legion in which 29 people died. As a result, a new organism was identified and named Legionella pneumophilia. Cannot be spread from person to person. Common cause, as with the original outbreak, is water-cooled, air-conditioning systems that have not been regularly maintained. This commonly involves the addition of chlorine to the water reservoir.

Lens Quick Reference: A biconvex structure behind the iris involved in focusing of the eye.

Advanced Reference: A flexible structure, the size of a lentil which adjusts the focus as the surrounding muscle increases or decreases its curvature.

Lesion Quick Reference: Non-specific term referring to the damage done to tissues.

Advanced Reference: Involves a pathological change in a body tissue. Any change or damage may be due to injury or a disease process.

Lesser curvature Quick Reference: Concave curve of the stomach.

Advanced Reference: It is the boundary of the stomach that forms a short concave curvature on the right side between the oesophagus and duodenum.

Lethidrone Quick Reference: Alternative name is nalorphine. A narcotic antagonist.

Advanced Reference: Nalorphine neutralises the action of morphine, pethidine and drugs with similar actions.

Leuc(o)- Quick Reference: Prefix indicating white.

Advanced Reference: Used in relation to both white cells and white matter in the brain.

Leucocyte Quick Reference: The white cells in the blood.

Advanced Reference: The total number is raised in infection while being abnormally low in other conditions. Leucocytosis indicates an increase in white cell count and leucopaenia, a decrease.


Leucotomy Quick Reference: Operation on the brain.

Advanced Reference: Involves cutting certain fibres (frontothalmic) in the brain as a treatment of some insanity disorders. The original operation involved injecting alcohol to destroy the fibres.

Leukaemia Quick Reference: Malignant disease involving overproduction of white blood cells.

Advanced Reference: May be acute or chronic and according to the type involved can be divided into myeloid or lymphatic.

Levobupivacaine Quick Reference: Local anaesthetic (LA) drug.

Advanced Reference: Very similar in action to bupivacaine but requires a much larger dose to produce the same effects.

Levophed Quick Reference: A vasoconstrictor drug.

Advanced Reference: It is in fact a noradrenaline and used to raise the BP in severe hypotension and/or cardiac arrest.

LFA Quick Reference: Low-friction arthroplasty.

Advanced Reference: Refers to the Charnley (Sir John) total hip replacement. Made of stainless steel with a small femoral head, high-density polyethylene cup and secured with acrylic cement.

Ligaclip Quick Reference: A metallic surgical clip used for haemostasis.

Advanced Reference: The ligaclip is applied on a ligaclip applicator. Ligaclips are placed on a vessel and pinched shut; the clips occlude the lumen and stop the vessels from bleeding.

Ligament Quick Reference: Fibrous band between two bones at a joint.

Advanced Reference: Ligaments are flexible but inelastic. They come into play only at the extremes of movement and cannot be stretched when they are taut.

Ligature Quick Reference: Material used for sewing or tying. Ligation is to tie.

Advanced Reference: Generally involves body tissues and vessels, and can be of synthetic or natural origin, e.g. nylon, silk, wire, catgut as well as patients own tendon, fascia, etc.

Lignocaine Quick Reference: A local anaesthetic (LA) drug.

Advanced Reference: Also termed lidocaine. Used in various percentage strengths and sometimes with adrenaline added to act as a vasoconstrictor. Also used as an anti-arrhythmic agent in the management of ventricular tachycardia and ventricular ectopic beats. Ointment and gel versions, J usually 2% are available for use on e.g. urethra. Also available as a 4% throat spray.

Limbus Quick Reference: A border or edge of certain structures.

Advanced Reference: The limbus of the eye is where the cornea joins the conjunctiva.


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