T

Tachycardia Quick Reference: (tac-e-card-ea) Rapid heartbeat. Tachy indicates fast or rapid.

Advanced Reference: May be due to many causes: fever, emotion, exercise, infection, pain, anaemia, haemorrhage, drugs or disorder of the cardiac rhythm.

Tamponade Quick Reference: (tam-pon-ard) Abnormal pressure on part of the body affecting function.

Advanced Reference: Example would be cardiac tamponade when the presence of fluid, e.g. blood, between the pericardium and the heart causes excessive pressure.

Tare weight Quick Reference: Empty weight.

Advanced Reference: Marking on a nitrous oxide cylinder to indicate the weight of the empty cylinder due to the contents being liquid and not a gas. Can be weighed to ascertain contents.

Tarsus Quick Reference: Base of the foot. Of the seven tarsal bones only one, the talus articulates with the leg to form the ankle joint.

Advanced Reference: Alternatively, it is the flat firm plate of connective tissue which supports the eyelid.

Temazepam Quick Reference: Short-acting benzodiazepine.

Advanced Reference: Often used in cases of insomnia and regularly as a premedication before general anaesthesia (GA).

Temgesic Quick Reference: Narcotic analgesic.

Advanced Reference: Used to treat all forms of pain. It is a preparation of the opiate buprenorphine hydrochloride.

Temporo-mandibular joint Quick Reference: Joint between the temporal bone of the skull and the lower jaw.

Advanced Reference: The joint lies just in front of the ear and is of sliding hinge design which allows movement of the mandible from side to side and the two bones are separated by a plate of cartilage inside the joint. Stiffness, deformity or injury to this joint may lead to difficult intubation.

Tendon

Tendon Quick Reference: Sinew.

Advanced Reference: Cord structure made of dense fibrous tissue which joins muscle to bone.

Tenotomy Quick Reference: Surgical division of a tendon.

Advanced Reference: An operative procedure of the tendon to correct a deformity caused by its shortening. Also an ophthalmology procedure to correct a squint.

Termination Quick Reference: Commonly used to indicate termination of pregnancy.

Advanced Reference: Indicates abortion, usually surgical but can include methods using drugs, etc.

Test dose Quick Reference: Administration of a small amount of a drug.

Advanced Reference: Term applied to injection of local anaesthetic (LA) in epidural procedures. A small dose of drug is given before the main dose in order to identify accidental subarachnoid or intravenous (IV) injection via the epidural catheter. A similar system is also carried out with certain antibiotics to determine allergic response.

Testosterone Quick Reference: Male sex hormone being the principal hormone of the testis.

Advanced Reference: It is necessary for the development of the secondary sexual characteristics, i.e. beard growth, pubic hair, enlargement of genital organs, lowering of the voice at puberty together with change in body shape at puberty. Also responsible for the production of semen.

Tetanus Quick Reference: Acute disease of the nervous system.

Advanced Reference: Caused by the micro-organism Clostridium tetani, mainly due to contamination from soil. Initially, muscle stiffness occurs around the site of the wound then followed by rigidity of the face and neck muscles and the mouth will not open fully (lock jaw). Prevention is by active immunisation with tetanus toxoid. Booster doses are given at recommended intervals.

7 Tetracyclines Quick Reference: (tet-ra-sice-lean) Antibiotic group of drugs.

< Advanced Reference: They have broad-spectrum activity but many

■g organisms have developed resistance to them but they are still used to

H treat Chlamydia and Rickettsia. Tetracyclines are deposited in growing c bones and teeth, staining them yellow and are therefore not given to

£ pregnant women, those breastfeeding or children under 12.

® Thalamonal Quick Reference: A proprietary preparation of fentanyl and c? droperidol.

is Advanced Reference: This combination of a tranquilliser and narcotic a. analgesic may be used for patients undergoing diagnostic or minor surgical procedures.

Thiopentone

Thalamus Quick Reference: Two masses of nerve cells positioned at the base of the cerebrum.

Advanced Reference: Sensations of all kinds are carried to the thalamus and then relayed to the cerebral cortex where they are perceived. If the thalamus is damaged, the perception of pain sensation can be affected.

Thalassaemia Quick Reference: (thal-a-seem-ea) An inherited defect in the formation of haemoglobin (Hb).

Advanced Reference: There are a number of types classified as major through to minor. The severest sometimes leading to death occurring before adolescence and the minor forms displaying few symptoms. Mostly found in Mediterranean regions and passed on from parents to children.

Theophylline Quick Reference: (thee-off-eline) A drug which dilates the bronchi.

Advanced Reference: Derived from tea leaves or made synthetically is used in the treatment of asthma and bronchospasm.

Therapeutics Quick Reference: (ther-a-putic) The study of the science of treating disease.

Advanced Reference: Therapy is the treatment of disease.

Therm Quick Reference: Unit of heat.

Advanced Reference: Thermal indicates a relationship to heat.

Thermistor Quick Reference: Device involved in temperature measurement.

Advanced Reference: Found in clinical temperature probes and pulmonary artery (PA) catheters for measuring cardiac output. Involves a semiconductor whose resistance changes with temperature.

Thermocouple Quick Reference: Device involved in temperature measurement.

Advanced Reference: Involves two strips of dissimilar metals which expand at different temperatures. The metals expand and contract in response to temperature changes and produce an electrical potential that then makes reference to pre-settings. Found in autoclaves.

Thiazides Quick Reference: (thia-zides) Diuretic group of drugs.

Advanced Reference: Thiazides act on the first part of the convoluted tubule in the kidney blocking the re-absorption of sodium. Used in the treatment of high blood pressure (BP) and heart failure.

Thiopentone Quick Reference: IV anaesthetic agent.

Advanced Reference: Short-acting barbiturate used in a 2.5% solution in the UK. Alternatively named sodium pentothal or intraval sodium. Referred to as the 'truth drug' in the US. Also used as an anticonvulsive. Stored as a yellow powder and reconstituted with water when required. Gives off a garlic smell and taste due to the sulphur content. Effects may endure for up to 24 hours after administration.

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