Sacrum Quick Reference: (say-crumb) Bone at the base of the spinal column.

Advanced Reference: Triangular bone formed by the fusion of five vertebrae. It forms above with the lumbar vertebrae and below with the coccyx.

Sagital Quick Reference: An imaginary line extending from front to back.

Advanced Reference: In the midline of the body, dividing right and left parts.

Saliva Quick Reference: Commonly referred to as spittle.

Advanced Reference: Secretion of the salivary glands which contains water, mucous, ptyalin and starts the process of digestion.

Salmonella Quick Reference: The main cause of food poisoning.

Advanced Reference: Genus of Gram-negative bacteria. Parasites of the gastrointestinal tract responsible for common types of food poisoning as well as typhoid and paratyphoid fevers.

Saphenous Quick Reference: (saf-een-us) Refers to veins in the lower leg.

Advanced Reference: The long saphenous vein runs up the inside of the leg from the ankle to the groin and the short saphenous from the outside of the ankle to the back of the knee. The long saphenous is the longest vein in the body. Often used in vascular and cardiac surgery as a source for a graft.

Sarcoma Quick Reference: A tumour of connective tissue often highly malignant.

Advanced Reference: May occur in any part of the body and tends to grow rapidly and metastasises early to distant sites.

Savlodil Quick Reference: An antiseptic. Savlon.

Advanced Reference: Produced in the form of sterile sachets and is a compound preparation of the disinfectants chlorhexidine gluconate and cetrimide.

Scavenging system Quick Reference: Method of removing waste gases in theatres.

Schimmelbusch mask

Advanced Reference: More specifically, removes the waste gases from the expiratory ports of anaesthetic-breathing systems. Can be passive or active. Passive systems are rarely used now and involve directing the gases to a carbon-filled container (Cardiff Aldasorber), which absorbs some vapours or simply involve leading gases away via a length of tubing to an exterior area. Active systems utilise low vacuum as an aid to extraction.

Schimmelbusch mask Quick Reference: (shim-em-bush) Early design of anaesthetic mask for delivering anaesthetic volatile agents.

Advanced Reference: Although referred to as a mask, is also classified as a vaporiser. Was in fact a wire-mask-shaped frame which fitted over the patient's mouth and nose then covered with gauze. The anaesthetic was then sprinkled onto the gauze which became impregnated and consequently the patient inhaled the vapours. Concentration was determined simply by the amount of liquid sprinkled on the gauze.

Schraeder Quick Reference: (shrader) Design of anaesthetic gas pipeline fitting/valve.

Advanced Reference: Classed as a valve or simply fitting, refers to the couplings for oxygen, nitrous oxide, air and suction, which are usually wall-mounted or hang from the theatre ceiling. The valve ensures that the gas is shut off when no probe is in place and are colour coded and unique to each gas.

Scirrhous Quick Reference: (skir-us) A type of cancer.

Advanced Reference: Pertaining to a hard tumour. Or scirrhus, a growth of connective tissue, such as a hard carcinoma of the breast.

Scissors Quick Reference: A surgical instrument used to cut and dissect tissue.

Advanced Reference: Scissors come in many shapes and sizes. They should be sharp in order to cleanly cut tissue and not tear it. The most commonly used scissors are Mcindoe, Mayo, Potts, Metzenbaum and n iris, etc. Known as 'cut'.

J Sclerotherapy Quick Reference: (scler-row therapy) Injection of sclerosing g agent to produce fibrosis.

~ Advanced Reference: Treatment used for haemorrhoids, varicose veins and oesophageal varices.

® Scoline Quick Reference: Depolarising skeletal-muscle relaxant. g> Advanced Reference: Preparation of suxamethonium chloride. It has a is duration of up to 5 min and commonly used for intubation in general anaesthesia (GA). Fasiculation occurs before paralysis is achieved. Also available as Anectine.

See-saw breathing

Scoline apnoea Quick Reference: Prolonged muscle paralysis.

Advanced Reference: Scoline apnoea occurs when the patient is given a depolarising muscle relaxant e.g. suxamethonium, if the patient is low on the enzyme cholinesterase which naturally breaks down the suxamethonium, the result is prolonged muscle paralysis (scoline apnoea). Treatment is to keep the patient sedated and ventilated until spontaneous reversal.

Scopolamine Quick Reference: Hyoscine.

Advanced Reference: A central nervous system (CNS) depressant. Has sedative, hypnotic and anti-emetic effects. Used as a premedication usually in combination with a narcotic. It is a more powerful drying agent (antisialogogue) than atropine.

Screen Quick Reference: Refers to the barrier device between the surgical and anaesthetic area of the operating table.

Advanced Reference: Also termed 'towel rail'. Has the intention of separating the sterile surgical field from the socially clean area of the anaesthetist as well as preventing drapes from covering the patient's face. A number of designs both home-made and manufactured are available. Jokingly referred to by anaesthetists as the 'blood-brain barrier'.

Scrotum Quick Reference: Pouch of skin below the root of the penis.

Advanced Reference: Contains the testes and accessory structures. Divided into two halves and the whole structure contracts in response to cold. Normally the testes themselves are placed so they are maintained at a slightly lower temperature than the rest of the body.

Scrub area Quick Reference: Area or room where theatre staff scrub prior to surgery.

Advanced Reference: Usually an anti-room to theatres or in some cases an area set aside for this purpose. Should be easily accessible but separate from general and patient entrances and exits.

Secretions Quick Reference: The formation by an organ/gland of a substance that is needed by some other organ or the body as a whole. n

Advanced Reference: The secretions of exocrine glands are carried away <

in ducts or poured straight into the place where they are to be used, e.g. i=

the secretion of the digestive glands and the glands of the skin. The 2

secretions of endocrine glands (hormones) are released into the blood. nt e

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