Radiation Quick Reference: Energy in the form of electromagnetic waves.

Advanced Reference: May be ionising or non-ionising. Examples are gamma rays, X-rays, infrared, ultraviolet, microwaves.

Radical Quick Reference: Taking an extensive clearing. Radical surgery is extensive enough to be curative rather than palliative.

Advanced Reference: Often referred to as radical-wide excision. This would imply that extra tissue is to be removed in order to ensure all affected or diseased tissues are removed.

Radioactive Quick Reference: A chemical substance giving off radiation.

Advanced Reference: Atoms that have the same number of protons and different numbers of neutrons are commonly referred to as isotopes. A number of isotopes pose threats to human life mainly due to their unstable nature, thus caused by a breakdown in their nuclei.

Radiographer Quick Reference: (raid-eog-rafer) X-ray technician.

Advanced Reference: The radiographer is responsible for the production of films and images for the radiologist to diagnose.

Radiology Quick Reference: Medical speciality concerned with the use of electromagnetic radiation.

Advanced Reference: Radiologists can be either diagnostic or therapeutic. Besides the diagnosis of X-rays, computerised tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, the former are becoming increasingly involved in invasive treatment of many conditions that were once treated solely with open surgery. Therapeutic radiologists are primarily concerned with utilising radioactive materials to treat disease, e.g. cancers.

Radio-opaque Quick Reference: Substance capable of obstructing X-rays.

Advanced Reference: Also referred to as contrast medium, used in X-ray procedures as a dye to produce an outline or image of an area, e.g. blood vessel, biliary tree.

Radiotherapy Quick Reference: Treatment of disease by radioactive substances.


Advanced Reference: This could be achieved through the use of X-rays to identify the nature of a fracture or underlying disease in any area of the patient's anatomy. Other more direct uses of radioactive substances in radiotherapy could be the insertion of the material within the patient close to the tumour. Most common radioactive substance used in radiotherapy are sealed capsules of cobalt 60.

Radium Quick Reference: Radioactive element.

Advanced Reference: Radioactive isotopes are utilised in radiotherapy for destroying cancer cells.

Radius Quick Reference: Bone of the forearm.

Advanced Reference: The outer bone of the lower arm is smaller than the ulna which it accompanies.

Rales Quick Reference: (rails) Abnormal sounds heard via a stethoscope when examining the chest.

Advanced Reference: Usually due to disease of the lungs involving fluid, etc. in the air passages. The sound is produced by air passing over or through dry or wet secretions.

Ramsted's procedure Quick Reference: Operation performed for stricture of the pylorus.

Advanced Reference: Named after the German surgeon W.C Ramstedt. Performed for congenital stricture or stenosis of the pylorus. The condition is usually detected in a newborn having difficulty retaining milk. Projectile vomiting is associated with this condition. A longitudinal incision is made into the pylorus and then resutured transversely creating a wider inner opening between the pylorus and the duodenum. Otherwise known as a pyloroplasty.

Ranitidine Quick Reference: Antacid or H2 receptor antagonist.

Advanced Reference: Rantidine is used to reduce gastric acid output by blocking the function of the H2 receptors. Indications for use are reflux within the oesophagus and gastric ulcers.

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