Ruben valve

Advanced Reference: May be made of rubber or a fine size 10G catheter. When placed over the ends of the artery forceps it makes the forceps less traumatic. Therefore, can then be use to hold fine sutures, e.g. 7/0, 8/0, etc.

Ruben valve Quick Reference: A non-rebreathing valve.

Advanced Reference: A one-way valve, similar in design and function to the Ambu valve. Allows for a constant flow of fresh gas, as there is no mixing of fresh and expired gases. Seldom used in anaesthetics but still found in resuscitation-type circuits, i.e. bag-valve-mask (BVM).

Rule of Nines Quick Reference: Assessment measuring system used in relation to patients with burns.

Advanced Reference: Used for external burns to make an estimate of the percentage area burned. For an adult each of the following areas affected is taken as 9% of the total body area: front of thorax, back of thorax, front of abdomen, back of abdomen, each arm, front of each leg, back of each leg, head plus neck. The area of the perineum is about 1%. In children, the head is assessed as 15-20% due to being proportionately much greater. Another useful measure is the front of the patient's hand, which represents about 1% of the surface area.

Ryles tube Quick Reference: A plastic-weighted tube inserted into the gastric system through the nasopharyngeal route.

Advanced Reference: Also termed nasogastric tube. Available in varying sizes and contains a radio-opaque line and metal ball in the tip for weighting. Used during gastric, hepatic and bowel surgery to allow escape of gas and gastric fluid. In theatres, they are often stored in the fridge to give a degree of rigidity to help insertion, which is usually carried out once the patient is anaesthetised.

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