Linctus Quick Reference: A syrup.

Advanced Reference: Medium used to carry medicines, i.e. cough mixtures.

Linea alba Quick Reference: A fibrous band.

Advanced Reference: A fibrous band running vertically along the entire length of the anterior abdominal wall and receives the attachments of the oblique and tranversalis muscles of the abdomen.

Linear Quick Reference: Of length. Indicating one dimension.

Advanced Reference: Indicates one direction in a straight path. When particles travel in a straight line and not in closed orbits. X-rays travel in straight lines prior to a degree of scatter. In laminar flow systems the air travels in a linear manner, i.e. straight lines.

Linen Quick Reference: Term used to generally indicate theatre clothing, etc.

Advanced Reference: All theatre-related clothing, drapes, instrument wrapping, etc. are included within this term, even though today many are made from synthetic materials.

Lingual Quick Reference: Of the tongue.

Advanced Reference: Term used to indicate the tongue.

Lipaemia Quick Reference: (lip-eem-ea) Excess fat in the blood.

Advanced Reference: Often associated with diabetes. Can also include cholesterol.

Lipase Quick Reference: An enzyme.

Advanced Reference: Lipase is involved in the breaking down of fats and is present in pancreatic juice and assists in converting them to fatty acids and glycerol.

Lipid Quick Reference: Fatty substance.

Advanced Reference: A group of fatty substances that are insoluble in water but soluble in alcohol, and form an important part of the diet.

Lip(o)- Quick Reference: Prefix for fat.

Advanced Reference: Lipid, lipoid refer to fat-like substances such as cholesterol.

£ Lipoma Quick Reference: Benign tumour often occurring just below the skin. i Advanced Reference: Lipomas are harmless and composed of fat cells.

Liposuction Quick Reference: Surgical removal of fat-utilising suction. Advanced Reference: The surgical removal of fat deposits, especially for cosmetic reasons. The suction device is usually inserted endoscopically. Also known as suction lipectomy.

Lithium Quick Reference: Metallic element.

Live-related donor

Advanced Reference: It is used in the treatment of manic depression. More recently has been used in ointment form as a treatment for types of dermatitis.

Lithopaxy Quick Reference: Crushing of a bladder stone.

Advanced Reference: Carried out with a lithotrite, followed by irrigation to flush out the crushed fragments.

Lithotomy Quick Reference: Originally used to indicate cutting into the bladder to remove a stone. The patient for this was positioned with legs elevated into various designs of stirrups, i.e. legs raised and slightly head down, hence the position became known as lithotomy.

Advanced Reference: The lithotomy position is when the patient is supine with their legs up in stirrups. This is often used in gynaecology or urology. Placing the legs in this position must be carried out in synchronus, in order to avoid injury to the spinal column and associated structures.

Lithotomy tray Quick Reference: Instrument tray used when the patient is in the lithotomy position.

Advanced Reference: A table attachment which fits into the operating table when the end section has been removed. Used commonly in gynaecology for holding instruments.

Lithotripsy Quick Reference: The crushing of a stone.

Advanced Reference: Procedure for breaking down renal stones, either directly or using shock waves (extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, ESWL).

Lithotrite Quick Reference: Urological instrument.

Advanced Reference: Instrument used to crush urinary bladder stones.

Litmus Quick Reference: Naturally occurring blue colouring matter.

Advanced Reference: Litmus is turned red by acids and restored to blue by an alkali.

Liver Quick Reference: Literal meaning is gland. Hepatic indicates the liver.

Advanced Reference: The largest gland in the human body situated in the right upper area of the abdominal cavity, just below the diaphragm. 7 Performs many functions, i.e. secretes bile; removes toxins from the ® blood; removes nitrogen from amino acids; stores vitamins A, B12, D, E '■§ and K; stores iron and glycogen; produces heat and converts stored fat £ into other fatty products (cholesterol), glycogen to glucose when needed ent and metabolises proteins. |

Live-related donor Quick Reference: Term used with reference to ® transplantation. g>

Advanced Reference: The term is used mainly in renal transplantation atir and refers to a donor kidney being from a live relative rather than the S. alternative donor method, cadaver.

Lloyd-Davies stirrups

Lloyd-Davies stirrups Quick Reference: Type of lithotomy poles.

Advanced Reference: More versatile type of lithotomy stirrup that has a number of adjustable joints and anatomically shaped lower leg rests into which the patients calves can be secured. They allow for variations in positioning and are designed for use with longer operations.

Lobe Quick Reference: A well-defined part of an organ.

Advanced Reference: Partitions of tissue as found in the lungs, thyroid, etc. Lobectomy is the removal of only the lobe and not the entire organ itself.

Lobotomy Quick Reference: Neurosurgery procedure.

Advanced Reference: An operation on the prefrontal area of the brain designed to bring about behavioural change through severing nerve fibres.

Local anaesthetic Quick reference: LA. Involves anaesthetising (localising) one specific area of the body.

Advanced Reference: Also termed regional anaesthesia. Can involve infiltration, surface creams as well as epidural and spinal techniques using various forms of LA agents.

Locomotor Quick Reference: Relating to movement.

Advanced Reference: Usually refers to human movement and involves nerves and muscles as well as bones and joints.

Log-roll Quick Reference: System used for turning injured patients.

Advanced Reference: Used when a patient has suspected or confirmed spinal injury. Involves rolling the patient as a unit, with no twisting of the spine and trunk. Requires a minimum of four to six people for the technique to be carried out satisfactorily. Some variations, such as first-aid settings, involve tying the patient's legs together and securing the arms to the sides of the body as additional stabilisation.

Loin Quick Reference: Area of the back immediately above the buttocks.

Advanced Reference: The area that extends between the thorax (lower ribs) and the pelvis (iliac crest).

Lomodex Quick Reference: Proprietary form of dextran. N Advanced Reference: A plasma substitute used in infusion with either

< saline or glucose to increase volume. Also used to prevent thrombosis J following surgery. Available in two strengths: 40 and 70.

£ Lomotil Quick Reference: Medicinal preparation used in treatment of

1 Advanced Reference: It is a mixture of diphenoxylate hydrochloride epa and atropine. It reduces gut motility and allows time for water absorp-

D tion from the faeces.

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