Graefe's knife Quick Reference: Fine pointed knife used in ophthalmology. £

Advanced Reference: Used to make an incision into the limbus, to aid § removal of a cataract. |

Graft Quick Reference: Body component transplanted from one site to ®

another. g>

Advanced Reference: Can involve tissue alone or entire organs. |j

Autograft indicates when the donor is also the recipient, e.g. skin graft; S. isograft means a graft between identical individuals; allograft, between

Gram dissimilar members of the same species; xenograft, between different species; orthotopic, a graft placed in the normal anatomical site; heterotopic, a graft placed in an anatomically abnormal site.

Gram Quick Reference: Unit of weight in the metric system.

Advanced Reference: 28 grams equate to 1 ounce.

Gram's stain Quick Reference: Method of staining bacteria.

Advanced Reference: The staining that enables the bacteria to be classified as either Gram negative or Gram positive.

Granulation tissue Quick Reference: Tissue formed at the site of a wound.

Advanced Reference: Composed mainly of small blood vessels and fibres. It is the first stage of healing.

Granulocytes Quick Reference: (gran-ulo-sites) Type of white blood cell.

Advanced Reference: White blood cells containing neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils.

Granuloma Quick Reference: Mass of granulation tissue.

Advanced Reference: Usually formed at the site of localised infection.

Gravid Quick Reference: Refers to pregnancy.

Advanced Reference: Gravid uterus. Primigravida refers to first pregnancy.

Greenstick fracture Quick Reference: Type of bone fracture.

Advanced Reference: Found in the long bones of children. The bone does not break completely, one side breaks while the other bends. This is due to the high level of connective tissue in children's bones as opposed to calcium and makes the bones more flexible.

Grey matter Quick Reference: Cellular tissue in the nervous system.

Advanced Reference: The brain and spinal cord contain two kinds of tissue, grey matter and white matter which are found in varying zones of these areas. In the spinal column, grey matter is gathered into a central column surrounded by white matter and in the brain is clumped into

N nuclei and over the surface of the cerebrum and cerebellum. <

g Gridiron incision Quick Reference: Incision used to access the appendix.

o Advanced Reference: So named due to access being made via splitting

£ the internal oblique and transverse muscles which have a 'gridiron' or

| 'mesh appearance'.

g. Groin Quick Reference: Area which includes the upper thigh and lower

.Jf Advanced Reference: Used regularly but inaccurately in lay terms to

^ indicate the genitalia.

Grommet Quick Reference: Tube inserted in the ear.


Advanced Reference: A grommet is a small plastic tube used to dry up glue ear. It is inserted into the ear drum creating a vent and a passage for drainage.

Guedel Quick Reference: (gudel) Oro-pharyngeal airway.

Advanced Reference: American anaesthetist known for introducing the oro-pharyngeal airway and devising the stages of anaesthesia.

Guillotine: Quick Reference: (gill-o-teen) Surgical instrument used in ear, nose and throat (ENT) surgery.

Advanced Reference: Instrument used for excision of the tonsils.

Gullet Quick Reference: The oesophagus.

Advanced Reference: Muscular tube connecting the throat to the stomach.

Guns Quick Reference: Slang term indicating mechanical stapling instruments.

Advanced Reference: Many are now available for anastomosing and suturing various organs and tissues. Their introduction has speeded up many surgical procedures.

Gynaecology Quick Reference: Medicine and surgery of the female reproductive system.

Advanced Reference: Gynaecology and obstetrics (the management of pregnancy) are counted as separate specialities though normally practised together by the one specialist.

Gynaecomastia Quick Reference: Abnormal enlargement of the male breasts.

Advanced Reference: May happen around the time of puberty due to hormonal imbalance. Can also be associated with over-activity of the thyroid, liver disease and conditions which are treated with oestrogens.

Gypsum Quick Reference: Plaster of Paris.

Advanced Reference: Calcium sulphate.

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